If generalist robots are to operate in truly unstructured environments, they need to be able to recognize and reason about novel objects and scenarios. Such objects and scenarios might not be present in the robot's own training data. We propose SuSIE, a method that leverages an image-editing diffusion model to act as a high-level planner by proposing intermediate subgoals that a low-level controller can accomplish. Specifically, we finetune InstructPix2Pix on video data, consisting of both human videos and robot rollouts, such that it outputs hypothetical future "subgoal" observations given the robot's current observation and a language command. We also use the robot data to train a low-level goal-conditioned policy to act as the aforementioned low-level controller. We find that the high-level subgoal predictions can utilize Internet-scale pretraining and visual understanding to guide the low-level goal-conditioned policy, achieving significantly better generalization and precision than conventional language-conditioned policies. We achieve state-of-the-art results on the CALVIN benchmark, and also demonstrate robust generalization on real-world manipulation tasks, beating strong baselines that have access to privileged information or that utilize orders of magnitude more compute and training data. The project website can be found at http://rail-berkeley.github.io/susie .
A compelling use case of offline reinforcement learning (RL) is to obtain a policy initialization from existing datasets, which allows efficient fine-tuning with limited amounts of active online interaction. However, several existing offline RL methods tend to exhibit poor online fine-tuning performance. On the other hand, online RL methods can learn effectively through online interaction, but struggle to incorporate offline data, which can make them very slow in settings where exploration is challenging or pre-training is necessary. In this paper, we devise an approach for learning an effective initialization from offline data that also enables fast online fine-tuning capabilities. Our approach, calibrated Q-learning (Cal-QL) accomplishes this by learning a conservative value function initialization that underestimates the value of the learned policy from offline data, while also being calibrated, in the sense that the learned Q-values are at a reasonable scale. We refer to this property as calibration, and define it formally as providing a lower bound on the true value function of the learned policy and an upper bound on the value of some other (suboptimal) reference policy, which may simply be the behavior policy. We show that offline RL algorithms that learn such calibrated value functions lead to effective online fine-tuning, enabling us to take the benefits of offline initializations in online fine-tuning. In practice, Cal-QL can be implemented on top of existing conservative methods for offline RL within a one-line code change. Empirically, Cal-QL outperforms state-of-the-art methods on 10/11 fine-tuning benchmark tasks that we study in this paper.