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Abstract:This paper proposes a novel hue-like angular parameter to model the structure of deep convolutional neural network (CNN) activation space, referred to as the {\em activation hue}, for the purpose of regularizing models for more effective learning. The activation hue generalizes the notion of color hue angle in standard 3-channel RGB intensity space to $N$-channel activation space. A series of observations based on nearest neighbor indexing of activation vectors with pre-trained networks indicate that class-informative activations are concentrated about an angle $\theta$ in both the $(x,y)$ image plane and in multi-channel activation space. A regularization term in the form of hue-like angular $\theta$ labels is proposed to complement standard one-hot loss. Training from scratch using combined one-hot + activation hue loss improves classification performance modestly for a wide variety of classification tasks, including ImageNet.

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Abstract:Downsampling layers, including pooling and strided convolutions, are crucial components of the convolutional neural network architecture that determine both the granularity/scale of image feature analysis as well as the receptive field size of a given layer. To fully understand this problem, we analyse the performance of models independently trained with each pooling configurations on CIFAR10, using a ResNet20 network, and show that the position of the downsampling layers can highly influence the performance of a network and predefined downsampling configurations are not optimal. Network Architecture Search (NAS) might be used to optimize downsampling configurations as an hyperparameter. However, we find that common one-shot NAS based on a single SuperNet does not work for this problem. We argue that this is because a SuperNet trained for finding the optimal pooling configuration fully shares its parameters among all pooling configurations. This makes its training hard, because learning some configurations can harm the performance of others. Therefore, we propose a balanced mixture of SuperNets that automatically associates pooling configurations to different weight models and helps to reduce the weight-sharing and inter-influence of pooling configurations on the SuperNet parameters. We evaluate our proposed approach on CIFAR10, CIFAR100, as well as Food101 and show that in all cases, our model outperforms other approaches and improves over the default pooling configurations.

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Authors:Javad Manashti, Pouyan Pirnia, Alireza Manashty, Sahar Ujan, Matthew Toews, François Duhaime

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Abstract:This project aimed to determine the grain size distribution of granular materials from images using convolutional neural networks. The application of ConvNet and pretrained ConvNet models, including AlexNet, SqueezeNet, GoogLeNet, InceptionV3, DenseNet201, MobileNetV2, ResNet18, ResNet50, ResNet101, Xception, InceptionResNetV2, ShuffleNet, and NASNetMobile was studied. Synthetic images of granular materials created with the discrete element code YADE were used. All the models were trained and verified with grayscale and color band datasets with image sizes ranging from 32 to 160 pixels. The proposed ConvNet model predicts the percentages of mass retained on the finest sieve, coarsest sieve, and all sieves with root-mean-square errors of 1.8 %, 3.3 %, and 2.8 %, respectively, and a coefficient of determination of 0.99. For pretrained networks, root-mean-square errors of 2.4 % and 2.8 % were obtained for the finest sieve with feature extraction and transfer learning models, respectively.

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Abstract:We report on a significant discovery linking deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) to biological vision and fundamental particle physics. A model of information propagation in a CNN is proposed via an analogy to an optical system, where bosonic particles (i.e. photons) are concentrated as the 2D spatial resolution of the image collapses to a focal point $1\times 1=1$. A 3D space $(x,y,t)$ is defined by $(x,y)$ coordinates in the image plane and CNN layer $t$, where a principal ray $(0,0,t)$ runs in the direction of information propagation through both the optical axis and the image center pixel located at $(x,y)=(0,0)$, about which the sharpest possible spatial focus is limited to a circle of confusion in the image plane. Our novel insight is to model the principal optical ray $(0,0,t)$ as geometrically equivalent to the medial vector in the positive orthant $I(x,y) \in R^{N+}$ of a $N$-channel activation space, e.g. along the greyscale (or luminance) vector $(t,t,t)$ in $RGB$ colour space. Information is thus concentrated into an energy potential $E(x,y,t)=\|I(x,y,t)\|^2$, which, particularly for bottleneck layers $t$ of generic CNNs, is highly concentrated and symmetric about the spatial origin $(0,0,t)$ and exhibits the well-known "Sombrero" potential of the boson particle. This symmetry is broken in classification, where bottleneck layers of generic pre-trained CNN models exhibit a consistent class-specific bias towards an angle $\theta \in U(1)$ defined simultaneously in the image plane and in activation feature space. Initial observations validate our hypothesis from generic pre-trained CNN activation maps and a bare-bones memory-based classification scheme, with no training or tuning. Training from scratch using a random $U(1)$ class label the leads to improved classification in all cases.

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Abstract:This paper proposes to extend local image features in 3D to include invariance to discrete symmetry including inversion of spatial axes and image contrast. A binary feature sign $s \in \{-1,+1\}$ is defined as the sign of the Laplacian operator $\nabla^2$, and used to obtain a descriptor that is invariant to image sign inversion $s \rightarrow -s$ and 3D parity transforms $(x,y,z)\rightarrow(-x,-y,-z)$, i.e. SP-invariant or SP-symmetric. SP-symmetry applies to arbitrary scalar image fields $I: R^3 \rightarrow R^1$ mapping 3D coordinates $(x,y,z) \in R^3$ to scalar intensity $I(x,y,z) \in R^1$, generalizing the well-known charge conjugation and parity symmetry (CP-symmetry) applying to elementary charged particles. Feature orientation is modeled as a set of discrete states corresponding to potential axis reflections, independently of image contrast inversion. Two primary axis vectors are derived from image observations and potentially subject to reflection, and a third axis is an axial vector defined by the right-hand rule. Augmenting local feature properties with sign in addition to standard (location, scale, orientation) geometry leads to descriptors that are invariant to coordinate reflections and intensity contrast inversion. Feature properties are factored in to probabilistic point-based registration as symmetric kernels, based on a model of binary feature correspondence. Experiments using the well-known coherent point drift (CPD) algorithm demonstrate that SIFT-CPD kernels achieve the most accurate and rapid registration of the human brain and CT chest, including multiple MRI modalities of differing intensity contrast, and abnormal local variations such as tumors or occlusions. SIFT-CPD image registration is invariant to global scaling, rotation and translation and image intensity inversions of the input data.

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Authors:Jean-Baptiste Carluer, Laurent Chauvin, Jie Luo, William M. Wells III, Ines Machado, Rola Harmouche, Matthew Toews

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Abstract:This work details a highly efficient implementation of the 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm, for the purpose of machine learning from large sets of volumetric medical image data. The primary operations of the 3D SIFT code are implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU), including convolution, sub-sampling, and 4D peak detection from scale-space pyramids. The performance improvements are quantified in keypoint detection and image-to-image matching experiments, using 3D MRI human brain volumes of different people. Computationally efficient 3D keypoint descriptors are proposed based on the Binary Robust Independent Elementary Feature (BRIEF) code, including a novel descriptor we call Ranked Robust Independent Elementary Features (RRIEF), and compared to the original 3D SIFT-Rank method\citep{toews2013efficient}. The GPU implementation affords a speedup of approximately 7X beyond an optimised CPU implementation, where computation time is reduced from 1.4 seconds to 0.2 seconds for 3D volumes of size (145, 174, 145) voxels with approximately 3000 keypoints. Notable speedups include the convolution operation (20X), 4D peak detection (3X), sub-sampling (3X), and difference-of-Gaussian pyramid construction (2X). Efficient descriptors offer a speedup of 2X and a memory savings of 6X compared to standard SIFT-Rank descriptors, at a cost of reduced numbers of keypoint correspondences, revealing a trade-off between computational efficiency and algorithmic performance. The speedups gained by our implementation will allow for a more efficient analysis on larger data sets. Our optimized GPU implementation of the 3D SIFT-Rank extractor is available at https://github.com/CarluerJB/3D_SIFT_CUDA.

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Abstract:Subject ID labels are unique, anonymized codes that can be used to group all images of a subject while maintaining anonymity. ID errors may be inadvertently introduced manually error during enrollment and may lead to systematic error into machine learning evaluation (e.g. due to double-dipping) or potential patient misdiagnosis in clinical contexts. Here we describe a highly efficient system for curating subject ID labels in large generic medical image datasets, based on the 3D image keypoint representation, which recently led to the discovery of previously unknown labeling errors in widely-used public brain MRI datasets

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Abstract:We propose a novel pairwise distance measure between variable-sized sets of image keypoints for the purpose of large-scale medical image indexing. Our measure generalizes the Jaccard index to account for soft set equivalence (SSE) between set elements, via an adaptive kernel framework accounting for uncertainty in keypoint appearance and geometry. Novel kernels are proposed to quantify the variability of keypoint geometry in location and scale. Our distance measure may be estimated between $N^2$ image pairs in $O(N~\log~N)$ operations via keypoint indexing. Experiments validate our method in predicting 509,545 pairwise relationships from T1-weighted MRI brain volumes of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, siblings and half-siblings sharing 100%-25% of their polymorphic genes. Soft set equivalence and keypoint geometry kernels outperform standard hard set equivalence (HSE) in predicting family relationships. High accuracy is achieved, with monozygotic twin identification near 100% and several cases of unknown family labels, due to errors in the genotyping process, are correctly paired with family members. Software is provided for efficient fine-grained curation of large, generic image datasets.

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Abstract:We introduce an approach for image segmentation based on sparse correspondences between keypoints in testing and training images. Keypoints represent automatically identified distinctive image locations, where each keypoint correspondence suggests a transformation between images. We use these correspondences to transfer label maps of entire organs from the training images to the test image. The keypoint transfer algorithm includes three steps: (i) keypoint matching, (ii) voting-based keypoint labeling, and (iii) keypoint-based probabilistic transfer of organ segmentations. We report segmentation results for abdominal organs in whole-body CT and MRI, as well as in contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. Our method offers a speed-up of about three orders of magnitude in comparison to common multi-atlas segmentation, while achieving an accuracy that compares favorably. Moreover, keypoint transfer does not require the registration to an atlas or a training phase. Finally, the method allows for the segmentation of scans with highly variable field-of-view.

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Authors:Ahmad Chaddad, Behnaz Naisiri, Marco Pedersoli, Eric Granger, Christian Desrosiers, Matthew Toews

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Abstract:This paper proposes a principled information theoretic analysis of classification for deep neural network structures, e.g. convolutional neural networks (CNN). The output of convolutional filters is modeled as a random variable Y conditioned on the object class C and network filter bank F. The conditional entropy (CENT) H(Y |C,F) is shown in theory and experiments to be a highly compact and class-informative code, that can be computed from the filter outputs throughout an existing CNN and used to obtain higher classification results than the original CNN itself. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of CENT feature analysis in two separate CNN classification contexts. 1) In the classification of neurodegeneration due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and natural aging from 3D magnetic resonance image (MRI) volumes, 3 CENT features result in an AUC=94.6% for whole-brain AD classification, the highest reported accuracy on the public OASIS dataset used and 12% higher than the softmax output of the original CNN trained for the task. 2) In the context of visual object classification from 2D photographs, transfer learning based on a small set of CENT features identified throughout an existing CNN leads to AUC values comparable to the 1000-feature softmax output of the original network when classifying previously unseen object categories. The general information theoretical analysis explains various recent CNN design successes, e.g. densely connected CNN architectures, and provides insights for future research directions in deep learning.

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