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Diego García-Martín, Martin Larocca, M. Cerezo

It is well known that artificial neural networks initialized from independent and identically distributed priors converge to Gaussian processes in the limit of large number of neurons per hidden layer. In this work we prove an analogous result for Quantum Neural Networks (QNNs). Namely, we show that the outputs of certain models based on Haar random unitary or orthogonal deep QNNs converge to Gaussian processes in the limit of large Hilbert space dimension $d$. The derivation of this result is more nuanced than in the classical case due the role played by the input states, the measurement observable, and the fact that the entries of unitary matrices are not independent. An important consequence of our analysis is that the ensuing Gaussian processes cannot be used to efficiently predict the outputs of the QNN via Bayesian statistics. Furthermore, our theorems imply that the concentration of measure phenomenon in Haar random QNNs is much worse than previously thought, as we prove that expectation values and gradients concentrate as $\mathcal{O}\left(\frac{1}{e^d \sqrt{d}}\right)$ -- exponentially in the Hilbert space dimension. Finally, we discuss how our results improve our understanding of concentration in $t$-designs.

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M. Cerezo, Guillaume Verdon, Hsin-Yuan Huang, Lukasz Cincio, Patrick J. Coles

At the intersection of machine learning and quantum computing, Quantum Machine Learning (QML) has the potential of accelerating data analysis, especially for quantum data, with applications for quantum materials, biochemistry, and high-energy physics. Nevertheless, challenges remain regarding the trainability of QML models. Here we review current methods and applications for QML. We highlight differences between quantum and classical machine learning, with a focus on quantum neural networks and quantum deep learning. Finally, we discuss opportunities for quantum advantage with QML.

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Sujay Kazi, Martin Larocca, M. Cerezo

The importance of symmetries has recently been recognized in quantum machine learning from the simple motto: if a task exhibits a symmetry (given by a group $\mathfrak{G}$), the learning model should respect said symmetry. This can be instantiated via $\mathfrak{G}$-equivariant Quantum Neural Networks (QNNs), i.e., parametrized quantum circuits whose gates are generated by operators commuting with a given representation of $\mathfrak{G}$. In practice, however, there might be additional restrictions to the types of gates one can use, such as being able to act on at most $k$ qubits. In this work we study how the interplay between symmetry and $k$-bodyness in the QNN generators affect its expressiveness for the special case of $\mathfrak{G}=S_n$, the symmetric group. Our results show that if the QNN is generated by one- and two-body $S_n$-equivariant gates, the QNN is semi-universal but not universal. That is, the QNN can generate any arbitrary special unitary matrix in the invariant subspaces, but has no control over the relative phases between them. Then, we show that in order to reach universality one needs to include $n$-body generators (if $n$ is even) or $(n-1)$-body generators (if $n$ is odd). As such, our results brings us a step closer to better understanding the capabilities and limitations of equivariant QNNs.

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Diego García-Martín, Martin Larocca, M. Cerezo

Overparametrization is one of the most surprising and notorious phenomena in machine learning. Recently, there have been several efforts to study if, and how, Quantum Neural Networks (QNNs) acting in the absence of hardware noise can be overparametrized. In particular, it has been proposed that a QNN can be defined as overparametrized if it has enough parameters to explore all available directions in state space. That is, if the rank of the Quantum Fisher Information Matrix (QFIM) for the QNN's output state is saturated. Here, we explore how the presence of noise affects the overparametrization phenomenon. Our results show that noise can "turn on" previously-zero eigenvalues of the QFIM. This enables the parametrized state to explore directions that were otherwise inaccessible, thus potentially turning an overparametrized QNN into an underparametrized one. For small noise levels, the QNN is quasi-overparametrized, as large eigenvalues coexists with small ones. Then, we prove that as the magnitude of noise increases all the eigenvalues of the QFIM become exponentially suppressed, indicating that the state becomes insensitive to any change in the parameters. As such, there is a pull-and-tug effect where noise can enable new directions, but also suppress the sensitivity to parameter updates. Finally, our results imply that current QNN capacity measures are ill-defined when hardware noise is present.

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Charles Moussa, Max Hunter Gordon, Michal Baczyk, M. Cerezo, Lukasz Cincio, Patrick J. Coles

Quantum-enhanced data science, also known as quantum machine learning (QML), is of growing interest as an application of near-term quantum computers. Variational QML algorithms have the potential to solve practical problems on real hardware, particularly when involving quantum data. However, training these algorithms can be challenging and calls for tailored optimization procedures. Specifically, QML applications can require a large shot-count overhead due to the large datasets involved. In this work, we advocate for simultaneous random sampling over both the dataset as well as the measurement operators that define the loss function. We consider a highly general loss function that encompasses many QML applications, and we show how to construct an unbiased estimator of its gradient. This allows us to propose a shot-frugal gradient descent optimizer called Refoqus (REsource Frugal Optimizer for QUantum Stochastic gradient descent). Our numerics indicate that Refoqus can save several orders of magnitude in shot cost, even relative to optimizers that sample over measurement operators alone.

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Louis Schatzki, Martin Larocca, Frederic Sauvage, M. Cerezo

Despite the great promise of quantum machine learning models, there are several challenges one must overcome before unlocking their full potential. For instance, models based on quantum neural networks (QNNs) can suffer from excessive local minima and barren plateaus in their training landscapes. Recently, the nascent field of geometric quantum machine learning (GQML) has emerged as a potential solution to some of those issues. The key insight of GQML is that one should design architectures, such as equivariant QNNs, encoding the symmetries of the problem at hand. Here, we focus on problems with permutation symmetry (i.e., the group of symmetry $S_n$), and show how to build $S_n$-equivariant QNNs. We provide an analytical study of their performance, proving that they do not suffer from barren plateaus, quickly reach overparametrization, and can generalize well from small amounts of data. To verify our results, we perform numerical simulations for a graph state classification task. Our work provides the first theoretical guarantees for equivariant QNNs, thus indicating the extreme power and potential of GQML.

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Quynh T. Nguyen, Louis Schatzki, Paolo Braccia, Michael Ragone, Patrick J. Coles, Frederic Sauvage, Martin Larocca, M. Cerezo

Most currently used quantum neural network architectures have little-to-no inductive biases, leading to trainability and generalization issues. Inspired by a similar problem, recent breakthroughs in classical machine learning address this crux by creating models encoding the symmetries of the learning task. This is materialized through the usage of equivariant neural networks whose action commutes with that of the symmetry. In this work, we import these ideas to the quantum realm by presenting a general theoretical framework to understand, classify, design and implement equivariant quantum neural networks. As a special implementation, we show how standard quantum convolutional neural networks (QCNN) can be generalized to group-equivariant QCNNs where both the convolutional and pooling layers are equivariant under the relevant symmetry group. Our framework can be readily applied to virtually all areas of quantum machine learning, and provides hope to alleviate central challenges such as barren plateaus, poor local minima, and sample complexity.

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Michael Ragone, Paolo Braccia, Quynh T. Nguyen, Louis Schatzki, Patrick J. Coles, Frederic Sauvage, Martin Larocca, M. Cerezo

Recent advances in classical machine learning have shown that creating models with inductive biases encoding the symmetries of a problem can greatly improve performance. Importation of these ideas, combined with an existing rich body of work at the nexus of quantum theory and symmetry, has given rise to the field of Geometric Quantum Machine Learning (GQML). Following the success of its classical counterpart, it is reasonable to expect that GQML will play a crucial role in developing problem-specific and quantum-aware models capable of achieving a computational advantage. Despite the simplicity of the main idea of GQML -- create architectures respecting the symmetries of the data -- its practical implementation requires a significant amount of knowledge of group representation theory. We present an introduction to representation theory tools from the optics of quantum learning, driven by key examples involving discrete and continuous groups. These examples are sewn together by an exposition outlining the formal capture of GQML symmetries via "label invariance under the action of a group representation", a brief (but rigorous) tour through finite and compact Lie group representation theory, a reexamination of ubiquitous tools like Haar integration and twirling, and an overview of some successful strategies for detecting symmetries.

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Supanut Thanasilp, Samson Wang, M. Cerezo, Zoë Holmes

Kernel methods in Quantum Machine Learning (QML) have recently gained significant attention as a potential candidate for achieving a quantum advantage in data analysis. Among other attractive properties, when training a kernel-based model one is guaranteed to find the optimal model's parameters due to the convexity of the training landscape. However, this is based on the assumption that the quantum kernel can be efficiently obtained from a quantum hardware. In this work we study the trainability of quantum kernels from the perspective of the resources needed to accurately estimate kernel values. We show that, under certain conditions, values of quantum kernels over different input data can be exponentially concentrated (in the number of qubits) towards some fixed value, leading to an exponential scaling of the number of measurements required for successful training. We identify four sources that can lead to concentration including: the expressibility of data embedding, global measurements, entanglement and noise. For each source, an associated concentration bound of quantum kernels is analytically derived. Lastly, we show that when dealing with classical data, training a parametrized data embedding with a kernel alignment method is also susceptible to exponential concentration. Our results are verified through numerical simulations for several QML tasks. Altogether, we provide guidelines indicating that certain features should be avoided to ensure the efficient evaluation and the trainability of quantum kernel methods.

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C. Huerta Alderete, Max Hunter Gordon, Frederic Sauvage, Akira Sone, Andrew T. Sornborger, Patrick J. Coles, M. Cerezo

In a standard Quantum Sensing (QS) task one aims at estimating an unknown parameter $\theta$, encoded into an $n$-qubit probe state, via measurements of the system. The success of this task hinges on the ability to correlate changes in the parameter to changes in the system response $\mathcal{R}(\theta)$ (i.e., changes in the measurement outcomes). For simple cases the form of $\mathcal{R}(\theta)$ is known, but the same cannot be said for realistic scenarios, as no general closed-form expression exists. In this work we present an inference-based scheme for QS. We show that, for a general class of unitary families of encoding, $\mathcal{R}(\theta)$ can be fully characterized by only measuring the system response at $2n+1$ parameters. In turn, this allows us to infer the value of an unknown parameter given the measured response, as well as to determine the sensitivity of the sensing scheme, which characterizes its overall performance. We show that inference error is, with high probability, smaller than $\delta$, if one measures the system response with a number of shots that scales only as $\Omega(\log^3(n)/\delta^2)$. Furthermore, the framework presented can be broadly applied as it remains valid for arbitrary probe states and measurement schemes, and, even holds in the presence of quantum noise. We also discuss how to extend our results beyond unitary families. Finally, to showcase our method we implement it for a QS task on real quantum hardware, and in numerical simulations.

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