The collaborative nature of federated learning (FL) poses a major threat in the form of manipulation of local training data and local updates, known as the Byzantine poisoning attack. To address this issue, many Byzantine-robust aggregation rules (AGRs) have been proposed to filter out or moderate suspicious local updates uploaded by Byzantine participants. This paper introduces a novel approach called AGRAMPLIFIER, aiming to simultaneously improve the robustness, fidelity, and efficiency of the existing AGRs. The core idea of AGRAMPLIFIER is to amplify the "morality" of local updates by identifying the most repressive features of each gradient update, which provides a clearer distinction between malicious and benign updates, consequently improving the detection effect. To achieve this objective, two approaches, namely AGRMP and AGRXAI, are proposed. AGRMP organizes local updates into patches and extracts the largest value from each patch, while AGRXAI leverages explainable AI methods to extract the gradient of the most activated features. By equipping AGRAMPLIFIER with the existing Byzantine-robust mechanisms, we successfully enhance the model's robustness, maintaining its fidelity and improving overall efficiency. AGRAMPLIFIER is universally compatible with the existing Byzantine-robust mechanisms. The paper demonstrates its effectiveness by integrating it with all mainstream AGR mechanisms. Extensive evaluations conducted on seven datasets from diverse domains against seven representative poisoning attacks consistently show enhancements in robustness, fidelity, and efficiency, with average gains of 40.08%, 39.18%, and 10.68%, respectively.
* Accepted by IEEE TIFS, this is the complete version
Recently, diffusion models have emerged as powerful deep generative models, showcasing cutting-edge performance across various applications such as image generation, solving inverse problems, and text-to-image synthesis. These models generate new data (e.g., images) by transforming random noise inputs through a reverse diffusion process. In this work, we uncover a distinct and prevalent phenomenon within diffusion models in contrast to most other generative models, which we refer to as ``consistent model reproducibility''. To elaborate, our extensive experiments have consistently shown that when starting with the same initial noise input and sampling with a deterministic solver, diffusion models tend to produce nearly identical output content. This consistency holds true regardless of the choices of model architectures and training procedures. Additionally, our research has unveiled that this exceptional model reproducibility manifests in two distinct training regimes: (i) ``memorization regime,'' characterized by a significantly overparameterized model which attains reproducibility mainly by memorizing the training data; (ii) ``generalization regime,'' in which the model is trained on an extensive dataset, and its reproducibility emerges with the model's generalization capabilities. Our analysis provides theoretical justification for the model reproducibility in ``memorization regime''. Moreover, our research reveals that this valuable property generalizes to many variants of diffusion models, including conditional diffusion models, diffusion models for solving inverse problems, and fine-tuned diffusion models. A deeper understanding of this phenomenon has the potential to yield more interpretable and controllable data generative processes based on diffusion models.
Diffusion models have recently emerged as powerful generative priors for solving inverse problems. However, training diffusion models in the pixel space are both data intensive and computationally demanding, which restricts their applicability as priors in domains such as medical imaging. Latent diffusion models, which operate in a much lower-dimensional space, offer a solution to these challenges. Though, their direct application to solving inverse problems remains an unsolved technical challenge due to the nonlinearity of the encoder and decoder. To address this issue,we propose ReSample, an algorithm that solves general inverse problems with pre-trained latent diffusion models. Our algorithm incorporates data consistency by solving an optimization problem during the reverse sampling process, a concept that we term as hard data consistency. Upon solving this optimization problem, we propose a novel resampling scheme to map the measurement-consistent sample back onto the correct data manifold. Our approach offers both memory efficiency and considerable flexibility in the sense that (1) it can be readily adapted to various inverse problems using the same pre-trained model as it does not assume any fixed forward measurement operator during training, and (2) it can be generalized to different domains by simply fine-tuning the latent diffusion model with a minimal amount of data samples. Our empirical results on both linear and non-linear inverse problems demonstrate that our approach can reconstruct high-quality images even compared to state-of-the-art works that operate in the pixel space.
Phase retrieval (PR) is an essential problem in a number of coherent imaging systems. This work aims at resolving the holographic phase retrieval problem in real world scenarios where the measurements are corrupted by a mixture of Poisson and Gaussian (PG) noise that stems from optical imaging systems. To solve this problem, we develop a novel algorithm based on Accelerated Wirtinger Flow that uses Score-based Diffusion models as the generative prior (AWFSD). In particular, we frame the PR problem as an optimization task that involves both a data fidelity term and a regularization term. We derive the gradient of the PG log-likelihood function along with its corresponding Lipschitz constant, ensuring a more accurate data consistency term for practical measurements. We introduce a generative prior as part of our regularization approach by using a score-based diffusion model to capture (the gradient of) the image prior distribution. We provide theoretical analysis that establishes a critical-point convergence guarantee for the proposed AWFSD algorithm. Our simulation experiments demonstrate that: 1) The proposed algorithm based on the PG likelihood model enhances reconstruction compared to that solely based on either Gaussian or Poisson likelihood. 2) The proposed AWFSD algorithm produces reconstructions with higher image quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, and is more robust to variations in noise levels when compared with state-of-the-art methods for phase retrieval.
The curation of large-scale medical datasets from multiple institutions necessary for training deep learning models is challenged by the difficulty in sharing patient data with privacy-preserving. Federated learning (FL), a paradigm that enables privacy-protected collaborative learning among different institutions, is a promising solution to this challenge. However, FL generally suffers from performance deterioration due to heterogeneous data distributions across institutions and the lack of quality labeled data. In this paper, we present a robust and label-efficient self-supervised FL framework for medical image analysis. Specifically, we introduce a novel distributed self-supervised pre-training paradigm into the existing FL pipeline (i.e., pre-training the models directly on the decentralized target task datasets). Built upon the recent success of Vision Transformers, we employ masked image encoding tasks for self-supervised pre-training, to facilitate more effective knowledge transfer to downstream federated models. Extensive empirical results on simulated and real-world medical imaging federated datasets show that self-supervised pre-training largely benefits the robustness of federated models against various degrees of data heterogeneity. Notably, under severe data heterogeneity, our method, without relying on any additional pre-training data, achieves an improvement of 5.06%, 1.53% and 4.58% in test accuracy on retinal, dermatology and chest X-ray classification compared with the supervised baseline with ImageNet pre-training. Moreover, we show that our self-supervised FL algorithm generalizes well to out-of-distribution data and learns federated models more effectively in limited label scenarios, surpassing the supervised baseline by 10.36% and the semi-supervised FL method by 8.3% in test accuracy.
Reconstructing medical images from partial measurements is an important inverse problem in Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Existing solutions based on machine learning typically train a model to directly map measurements to medical images, leveraging a training dataset of paired images and measurements. These measurements are typically synthesized from images using a fixed physical model of the measurement process, which hinders the generalization capability of models to unknown measurement processes. To address this issue, we propose a fully unsupervised technique for inverse problem solving, leveraging the recently introduced score-based generative models. Specifically, we first train a score-based generative model on medical images to capture their prior distribution. Given measurements and a physical model of the measurement process at test time, we introduce a sampling method to reconstruct an image consistent with both the prior and the observed measurements. Our method does not assume a fixed measurement process during training, and can thus be flexibly adapted to different measurement processes at test time. Empirically, we observe comparable or better performance to supervised learning techniques in several medical imaging tasks in CT and MRI, while demonstrating significantly better generalization to unknown measurement processes.
Image reconstruction is an inverse problem that solves for a computational image based on sampled sensor measurement. Sparsely sampled image reconstruction poses addition challenges due to limited measurements. In this work, we propose an implicit Neural Representation learning methodology with Prior embedding (NeRP) to reconstruct a computational image from sparsely sampled measurements. The method differs fundamentally from previous deep learning-based image reconstruction approaches in that NeRP exploits the internal information in an image prior, and the physics of the sparsely sampled measurements to produce a representation of the unknown subject. No large-scale data is required to train the NeRP except for a prior image and sparsely sampled measurements. In addition, we demonstrate that NeRP is a general methodology that generalizes to different imaging modalities such as CT and MRI. We also show that NeRP can robustly capture the subtle yet significant image changes required for assessing tumor progression.
Deep learning affords enormous opportunities to augment the armamentarium of biomedical imaging, albeit its design and implementation have potential flaws. Fundamentally, most deep learning models are driven entirely by data without consideration of any prior knowledge, which dramatically increases the complexity of neural networks and limits the application scope and model generalizability. Here we establish a geometry-informed deep learning framework for ultra-sparse 3D tomographic image reconstruction. We introduce a novel mechanism for integrating geometric priors of the imaging system. We demonstrate that the seamless inclusion of known priors is essential to enhance the performance of 3D volumetric computed tomography imaging with ultra-sparse sampling. The study opens new avenues for data-driven biomedical imaging and promises to provide substantially improved imaging tools for various clinical imaging and image-guided interventions.