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Maying Shen, Hongxu Yin, Pavlo Molchanov, Lei Mao, Jianna Liu, Jose M. Alvarez

Structural pruning can simplify network architecture and improve inference speed. We propose Hardware-Aware Latency Pruning (HALP) that formulates structural pruning as a global resource allocation optimization problem, aiming at maximizing the accuracy while constraining latency under a predefined budget on targeting device. For filter importance ranking, HALP leverages latency lookup table to track latency reduction potential and global saliency score to gauge accuracy drop. Both metrics can be evaluated very efficiently during pruning, allowing us to reformulate global structural pruning under a reward maximization problem given target constraint. This makes the problem solvable via our augmented knapsack solver, enabling HALP to surpass prior work in pruning efficacy and accuracy-efficiency trade-off. We examine HALP on both classification and detection tasks, over varying networks, on ImageNet and VOC datasets, on different platforms. In particular, for ResNet-50/-101 pruning on ImageNet, HALP improves network throughput by $1.60\times$/$1.90\times$ with $+0.3\%$/$-0.2\%$ top-1 accuracy changes, respectively. For SSD pruning on VOC, HALP improves throughput by $1.94\times$ with only a $0.56$ mAP drop. HALP consistently outperforms prior art, sometimes by large margins. Project page at https://halp-neurips.github.io/.

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Anuj Mahajan, Mikayel Samvelyan, Lei Mao, Viktor Makoviychuk, Animesh Garg, Jean Kossaifi, Shimon Whiteson, Yuke Zhu, Animashree Anandkumar

We present an extended abstract for the previously published work TESSERACT [Mahajan et al., 2021], which proposes a novel solution for Reinforcement Learning (RL) in large, factored action spaces using tensor decompositions. The goal of this abstract is twofold: (1) To garner greater interest amongst the tensor research community for creating methods and analysis for approximate RL, (2) To elucidate the generalised setting of factored action spaces where tensor decompositions can be used. We use cooperative multi-agent reinforcement learning scenario as the exemplary setting where the action space is naturally factored across agents and learning becomes intractable without resorting to approximation on the underlying hypothesis space for candidate solutions.

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Maying Shen, Hongxu Yin, Pavlo Molchanov, Lei Mao, Jianna Liu, Jose M. Alvarez

Structural pruning can simplify network architecture and improve inference speed. We propose Hardware-Aware Latency Pruning (HALP) that formulates structural pruning as a global resource allocation optimization problem, aiming at maximizing the accuracy while constraining latency under a predefined budget. For filter importance ranking, HALP leverages latency lookup table to track latency reduction potential and global saliency score to gauge accuracy drop. Both metrics can be evaluated very efficiently during pruning, allowing us to reformulate global structural pruning under a reward maximization problem given target constraint. This makes the problem solvable via our augmented knapsack solver, enabling HALP to surpass prior work in pruning efficacy and accuracy-efficiency trade-off. We examine HALP on both classification and detection tasks, over varying networks, on ImageNet and VOC datasets. In particular, for ResNet-50/-101 pruning on ImageNet, HALP improves network throughput by $1.60\times$/$1.90\times$ with $+0.3\%$/$-0.2\%$ top-1 accuracy changes, respectively. For SSD pruning on VOC, HALP improves throughput by $1.94\times$ with only a $0.56$ mAP drop. HALP consistently outperforms prior art, sometimes by large margins.

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Anuj Mahajan, Mikayel Samvelyan, Lei Mao, Viktor Makoviychuk, Animesh Garg, Jean Kossaifi, Shimon Whiteson, Yuke Zhu, Animashree Anandkumar

Reinforcement Learning in large action spaces is a challenging problem. Cooperative multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) exacerbates matters by imposing various constraints on communication and observability. In this work, we consider the fundamental hurdle affecting both value-based and policy-gradient approaches: an exponential blowup of the action space with the number of agents. For value-based methods, it poses challenges in accurately representing the optimal value function. For policy gradient methods, it makes training the critic difficult and exacerbates the problem of the lagging critic. We show that from a learning theory perspective, both problems can be addressed by accurately representing the associated action-value function with a low-complexity hypothesis class. This requires accurately modelling the agent interactions in a sample efficient way. To this end, we propose a novel tensorised formulation of the Bellman equation. This gives rise to our method Tesseract, which views the Q-function as a tensor whose modes correspond to the action spaces of different agents. Algorithms derived from Tesseract decompose the Q-tensor across agents and utilise low-rank tensor approximations to model agent interactions relevant to the task. We provide PAC analysis for Tesseract-based algorithms and highlight their relevance to the class of rich observation MDPs. Empirical results in different domains confirm Tesseract's gains in sample efficiency predicted by the theory.

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Weili Nie, Zhiding Yu, Lei Mao, Ankit B. Patel, Yuke Zhu, Animashree Anandkumar

Humans have an inherent ability to learn novel concepts from only a few samples and generalize these concepts to different situations. Even though today's machine learning models excel with a plethora of training data on standard recognition tasks, a considerable gap exists between machine-level pattern recognition and human-level concept learning. To narrow this gap, the Bongard Problems (BPs) were introduced as an inspirational challenge for visual cognition in intelligent systems. Albeit new advances in representation learning and learning to learn, BPs remain a daunting challenge for modern AI. Inspired by the original one hundred BPs, we propose a new benchmark Bongard-LOGO for human-level concept learning and reasoning. We develop a program-guided generation technique to produce a large set of human-interpretable visual cognition problems in action-oriented LOGO language. Our benchmark captures three core properties of human cognition: 1) context-dependent perception, in which the same object may have disparate interpretations given different contexts; 2) analogy-making perception, in which some meaningful concepts are traded off for other meaningful concepts; and 3) perception with a few samples but infinite vocabulary. In experiments, we show that the state-of-the-art deep learning methods perform substantially worse than human subjects, implying that they fail to capture core human cognition properties. Finally, we discuss research directions towards a general architecture for visual reasoning to tackle this benchmark.

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