This paper presents a neural-enhanced probabilistic model and corresponding factor graph-based sum-product algorithm for robust localization and tracking in multipath-prone environments. The introduced hybrid probabilistic model consists of physics-based and data-driven measurement models capturing the information contained in both, the line-of-sight (LOS) component as well as in multipath components (NLOS components). The physics-based and data-driven models are embedded in a joint Bayesian framework allowing to derive from first principles a factor graph-based algorithm that fuses the information of these models. The proposed algorithm uses radio signal measurements from multiple base stations to robustly estimate the mobile agent's position together with all model parameters. It provides high localization accuracy by exploiting the position-related information of the LOS component via the physics-based model and robustness by exploiting the geometric imprint of multipath components independent of the propagation channel via the data-driven model. In a challenging numerical experiment involving obstructed LOS situations to all anchors, we show that the proposed sequential algorithm significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods and attains the posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound even with training data limited to local regions.
In this paper, we present an iterative algorithm that detects and estimates the specular components and estimates the diffuse component of single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) ultra-wide-band (UWB) multipath channels. Specifically, the algorithm super-resolves the specular components in the delay-angle-of-arrival domain and estimates the parameters of a parametric model of the delay-angle power spectrum characterizing the diffuse component. Channel noise is also estimated. In essence, the algorithm solves the problem of estimating spectral lines (the specular components) in colored noise (generated by the diffuse component and channel noise). Its design is inspired by the sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) framework. As a result the iteration process contains a threshold condition that determines whether a candidate specular component shall be retained or pruned. By relying to results from extreme-value analysis the threshold of this condition is suitably adapted to ensure a prescribed probability of detecting spurious specular components. Studies using synthetic and real channel measurement data demonstrate the virtues of the algorithm: it is able to still detect and accurately estimate specular components, even when their separation in delay and angle is down to half the Rayleigh resolution limit (RRL) of the equipment; it is robust in the sense that it tends to return no more specular components than the actual ones. Finally, the algorithm is shown to outperform a state-of-the-art super-resolution channel estimator.
We present a fast update rule for variational block-sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) methods. Using a variational Bayesian framework, we show how repeated updates of probability density functions (PDFs) of the prior variances and weights can be expressed as a nonlinear first-order recurrence from one estimate of the parameters of the proxy PDFs to the next. Specifically, the recurrent relation turns out to be a strictly increasing rational function for many commonly used prior PDFs of the variances, such as Jeffrey's prior. Hence, the fixed points of this recurrent relation can be obtained by solving for the roots of a polynomial. This scheme allows to check for convergence/divergence of individual prior variances in a single step. Thereby, the the computational complexity of the variational block-SBL algorithm is reduced and the convergence speed is improved by two orders of magnitude in our simulations. Furthermore, the solution allows insights into the sparsity of the estimators obtained by choosing different priors.
This paper deals with propagation and channel modeling for physically large arrays. The focus lies on acquiring a spatially consistent model, which is essential, especially for positioning and sensing applications. Ultra-wideband, synthetic array measurement data have been acquired with large positioning devices to support this research. We present a modified multipath channel model that accounts for a varying visibility of multipath components along a large array. Based on a geometric model of the measurement environment, we analyze the visibility of specular components. We show that, depending on the size of the reflecting surface, geometric visibility and amplitude estimates obtained with a super-resolution channel estimation algorithm show a strong correspondence. Furthermore, we highlight the capabilities of the developed synthetic array measurement system.
Geometric environment information aids future distributed radio infrastructures in providing services, such as ultra-reliable communication, positioning, and wireless power transfer (WPT). An a priori known environment model cannot always be assumed in practice. This paper investigates the capabilities of detecting specularly reflecting surfaces in a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar setup operating at sub-10 GHz frequencies. While rough surfaces generate diffuse reflections originating from their actual position, flat surfaces act like "mirrors," causing directive reflections that virtually originate "behind" them. Despite these propagation characteristics, we can estimate the locations of flat metal walls from reflections at their surface using synthetic aperture (SA) measurements. The performance gain achievable by exploiting this environment information is analyzed by evaluating WPT capabilities in a geometry-based beamforming setup. We show that it is possible to predict channel state information (CSI) with a geometric channel model. Our geometry-based beamformer suffers an efficiency loss of only 1.1dB compared with a reciprocity-based beamformer given perfect CSI.
Multiple concepts for future generations of wireless communication standards utilize coherent processing of signals from many distributed antennas. Names for these concepts include distributed MIMO, cell-free massive MIMO, XL-MIMO, and large intelligent surfaces. They aim to improve communication reliability, capacity, as well as energy efficiency and provide possibilities for new applications through joint communication and sensing. One such recently proposed solution is the concept of RadioWeaves. It proposes a new radio infrastructure for distributed MIMO with distributed internal processing, storage, and compute resources integrated into the infrastructure. The large bandwidths available in the higher bands have inspired much work regarding sensing in the mmWave- and sub-THz-bands, however, sub-6 GHz cellular bands will still be the main provider of broad cellular coverage due to the more favorable propagation conditions. In this paper, we present results from a sub-6 GHz measurement campaign targeting the non-stationary spatial channel statistics for a large RadioWeave and the temporal non-stationarity in a dynamic scenario with RadioWeaves. From the results, we also predict the possibility of multi-static sensing and positioning of users in the environment.
In this paper, we present a variational inference algorithm that decomposes a signal into multiple groups of related spectral lines. The spectral lines in each group are associated with a group parameter common to all spectral lines within the group. The proposed algorithm jointly estimates the group parameters, the number of spetral lines within a group, and the number of groups exploiting a Bernoulli-Gamma-Gaussian hierarchical prior model which promotes sparse solutions. Aiming to maximize the evidence lower bound (ELBO), variational inference provides analytic approximations of the posterior probability density functions (PDFs) and also gives estimates of the additional model parameters such as the measurement noise variance. While the activation variables of the groups and the associated group parameters (such as fundamental frequencies and the corresponding higher order harmonics) are estimated as point estimates, the remaining parameters such as the complex amplitudes of the spectral lines and their precision parameters are estimated as approximate posterior PDFs. We demonstrate the versatility and performance of the proposed algorithm on three different inference problems. In particular, the proposed algorithm is applied to the multi-pitch estimation problem, the radar signal-based extended object estimation problem, and variational mode decomposition (VMD) using synthetic measurements and to real multi-pitch estimation problem using the Bach-10 dataset. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art model-based and pre-trained algorithms on all three inference problems.
Massive antenna arrays form physically large apertures with a beam-focusing capability, leading to outstanding wireless power transfer (WPT) efficiency paired with low radiation levels outside the focusing region. However, leveraging these features requires accurate knowledge of the multipath propagation channel and overcoming the (Rayleigh) fading channel present in typical application scenarios. For that, reciprocity-based beamforming is an optimal solution that estimates the actual channel gains from pilot transmissions on the uplink. But this solution is unsuitable for passive backscatter nodes that are not capable of sending any pilots in the initial access phase. Using measured channel data from an extremely large-scale MIMO (XL-MIMO) testbed, we compare geometry-based planar wavefront and spherical wavefront beamformers with a reciprocity-based beamformer, to address this initial access problem. We also show that we can predict specular multipath components (SMCs) based only on geometric environment information. We demonstrate that a transmit power of 1W is sufficient to transfer more than 1mW of power to a device located at a distance of 12.3m when using a (40x25) array at 3.8GHz. The geometry-based beamformer exploiting predicted SMCs suffers a loss of only 2dB compared with perfect channel state information.