This paper considers a stochastic control framework, in which the residual model uncertainty of the dynamical system is learned using a Gaussian Process (GP). In the proposed formulation, the residual model uncertainty consists of a nonlinear function and state-dependent noise. The proposed formulation uses a posterior-GP to approximate the residual model uncertainty and a prior-GP to account for state-dependent noise. The two GPs are interdependent and are thus learned jointly using an iterative algorithm. Theoretical properties of the iterative algorithm are established. Advantages of the proposed state-dependent formulation include (i) faster convergence of the GP estimate to the unknown function as the GP learns which data samples are more trustworthy and (ii) an accurate estimate of state-dependent noise, which can, e.g., be useful for a controller or decision-maker to determine the uncertainty of an action. Simulation studies highlight these two advantages.
While privacy concerns entice connected and automated vehicles to incorporate on-board federated learning (FL) solutions, an integrated vehicle-to-everything communication with heterogeneous computation power aware learning platform is urgently necessary to make it a reality. Motivated by this, we propose a novel mobility, communication and computation aware online FL platform that uses on-road vehicles as learning agents. Thanks to the advanced features of modern vehicles, the on-board sensors can collect data as vehicles travel along their trajectories, while the on-board processors can train machine learning models using the collected data. To take the high mobility of vehicles into account, we consider the delay as a learning parameter and restrict it to be less than a tolerable threshold. To satisfy this threshold, the central server accepts partially trained models, the distributed roadside units (a) perform downlink multicast beamforming to minimize global model distribution delay and (b) allocate optimal uplink radio resources to minimize local model offloading delay, and the vehicle agents conduct heterogeneous local model training. Using real-world vehicle trace datasets, we validate our FL solutions. Simulation shows that the proposed integrated FL platform is robust and outperforms baseline models. With reasonable local training episodes, it can effectively satisfy all constraints and deliver near ground truth multi-horizon velocity and vehicle-specific power predictions.
We consider the object recognition problem in autonomous driving using automotive radar sensors. Comparing to Lidar sensors, radar is cost-effective and robust in all-weather conditions for perception in autonomous driving. However, radar signals suffer from low angular resolution and precision in recognizing surrounding objects. To enhance the capacity of automotive radar, in this work, we exploit the temporal information from successive ego-centric bird-eye-view radar image frames for radar object recognition. We leverage the consistency of an object's existence and attributes (size, orientation, etc.), and propose a temporal relational layer to explicitly model the relations between objects within successive radar images. In both object detection and multiple object tracking, we show the superiority of our method compared to several baseline approaches.
This paper proposes a method for calibrating control parameters. Examples of such control parameters are gains of PID controllers, weights of a cost function for optimal control, filter coefficients, the sliding surface of a sliding mode controller, or weights of a neural network. Hence, the proposed method can be applied to a wide range of controllers. The method uses a Kalman filter that estimates control parameters rather than the system's state, using data of closed-loop system operation. The control parameter calibration is driven by a training objective, which encompasses specifications on the performance of the dynamical system. The calibration method tunes the parameters online and robustly, is computationally efficient, has low data storage requirements, and is easy to implement making it appealing for many real-time applications. Simulation results show that the method is able to learn control parameters quickly (approximately 24% average decay factor of closed-loop cost), is able to tune the parameters to compensate for disturbances (approximately 29% improvement on tracking precision), and is robust to noise. Further, a simulation study with the high-fidelity vehicle simulator CarSim shows that the method can calibrate controllers of a complex dynamical system online, which indicates its applicability to a real-world system.
Motion planning under differential constraints, kinodynamic motion planning, is one of the canonical problems in robotics. Currently, state-of-the-art methods evolve around kinodynamic variants of popular sampling-based algorithms, such as Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs). However, there are still challenges remaining, for example, how to include complex dynamics while guaranteeing optimality. If the open-loop dynamics are unstable, exploration by random sampling in control space becomes inefficient. We describe a new sampling-based algorithm, called CL-RRT#, which leverages ideas from the RRT# algorithm and a variant of the RRT algorithm that generates trajectories using closed-loop prediction. The idea of planning with closed-loop prediction allows us to handle complex unstable dynamics and avoids the need to find computationally hard steering procedures. The search technique presented in the RRT# algorithm allows us to improve the solution quality by searching over alternative reference trajectories. Numerical simulations using a nonholonomic system demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach.