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Authors:Theodore Papamarkou, Tolga Birdal, Michael Bronstein, Gunnar Carlsson, Justin Curry, Yue Gao, Mustafa Hajij, Roland Kwitt, Pietro Liò, Paolo Di Lorenzo(+12 more)

Abstract:Topological deep learning (TDL) is a rapidly evolving field that uses topological features to understand and design deep learning models. This paper posits that TDL may complement graph representation learning and geometric deep learning by incorporating topological concepts, and can thus provide a natural choice for various machine learning settings. To this end, this paper discusses open problems in TDL, ranging from practical benefits to theoretical foundations. For each problem, it outlines potential solutions and future research opportunities. At the same time, this paper serves as an invitation to the scientific community to actively participate in TDL research to unlock the potential of this emerging field.

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Authors:William Bernardoni, Robert Cardona, Jacob Cleveland, Justin Curry, Robert Green, Brian Heller, Alan Hylton, Tung Lam, Robert Kassouf-Short

Abstract:In this paper we introduce some new algebraic and geometric perspectives on networked space communications. Our main contribution is a novel definition of a time-varying graph (TVG), defined in terms of a matrix with values in subsets of the real line P(R). We leverage semi-ring properties of P(R) to model multi-hop communication in a TVG using matrix multiplication and a truncated Kleene star. This leads to novel statistics on the communication capacity of TVGs called lifetime curves, which we generate for large samples of randomly chosen STARLINK satellites, whose connectivity is modeled over day-long simulations. Determining when a large subsample of STARLINK is temporally strongly connected is further analyzed using novel metrics introduced here that are inspired by topological data analysis (TDA). To better model networking scenarios between the Earth and Mars, we introduce various semi-rings capable of modeling propagation delay as well as protocols common to Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), such as store-and-forward. Finally, we illustrate the applicability of zigzag persistence for featurizing different space networks and demonstrate the efficacy of K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classification for distinguishing Earth-Mars and Earth-Moon satellite systems using time-varying topology alone.

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Abstract:Adapting a definition given by Bjerkevik and Lesnick for multiparameter persistence modules, we introduce an $\ell^p$-type extension of the interleaving distance on merge trees. We show that our distance is a metric, and that it upper-bounds the $p$-Wasserstein distance between the associated barcodes. For each $p\in[1,\infty]$, we prove that this distance is stable with respect to cellular sublevel filtrations and that it is the universal (i.e., largest) distance satisfying this stability property. In the $p=\infty$ case, this gives a novel proof of universality for the interleaving distance on merge trees.

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