Recent research on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has provided a significant performance boost on efficient super-resolution (SR) tasks by trading off the performance and applicability. However, most existing methods focus on subtracting feature processing consumption to reduce the parameters and calculations without refining the immediate features, which leads to inadequate information in the restoration. In this paper, we propose a lightweight network termed DDistill-SR, which significantly improves the SR quality by capturing and reusing more helpful information in a static-dynamic feature distillation manner. Specifically, we propose a plug-in reparameterized dynamic unit (RDU) to promote the performance and inference cost trade-off. During the training phase, the RDU learns to linearly combine multiple reparameterizable blocks by analyzing varied input statistics to enhance layer-level representation. In the inference phase, the RDU is equally converted to simple dynamic convolutions that explicitly capture robust dynamic and static feature maps. Then, the information distillation block is constructed by several RDUs to enforce hierarchical refinement and selective fusion of spatial context information. Furthermore, we propose a dynamic distillation fusion (DDF) module to enable dynamic signals aggregation and communication between hierarchical modules to further improve performance. Empirical results show that our DDistill-SR outperforms the baselines and achieves state-of-the-art results on most super-resolution domains with much fewer parameters and less computational overhead. We have released the code of DDistill-SR at https://github.com/icandle/DDistill-SR.
* IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 25, 7222-7234 (2023) * Accepted by IEEE Transactions on Multimedia (TMM)
The widespread use of ChatGPT and other emerging technology powered by generative artificial intelligence (AI) has drawn much attention to potential ethical issues, especially in high-stakes applications such as healthcare. However, less clear is how to resolve such issues beyond following guidelines and regulations that are still under discussion and development. On the other hand, other types of generative AI have been used to synthesize images and other types of data for research and practical purposes, which have resolved some ethical issues and exposed other ethical issues, but such technology is less often the focus of ongoing ethical discussions. Here we highlight gaps in current ethical discussions of generative AI via a systematic scoping review of relevant existing research in healthcare, and reduce the gaps by proposing an ethics checklist for comprehensive assessment and transparent documentation of ethical discussions in generative AI development. While the checklist can be readily integrated into the current peer review and publication system to enhance generative AI research, it may also be used in broader settings to disclose ethics-related considerations in generative AI-powered products (or real-life applications of such products) to help users establish reasonable trust in their capabilities.
One-class classification (OCC) aims to train a classifier only with the target class data and attracts great attention for its strong applicability in real-world application. Despite a lot of advances have been made in OCC, it still lacks the effective OCC loss functions for deep learning. In this paper, a novel logarithmic barrier function based OCC loss (LBL) that assigns large gradients to the margin samples and thus derives more compact hypersphere, is first proposed by approximating the OCC objective smoothly. But the optimization of LBL may be instability especially when samples lie on the boundary leading to the infinity loss. To address this issue, then, a unilateral relaxation Sigmoid function is introduced into LBL and a novel OCC loss named LBLSig is proposed. The LBLSig can be seen as the fusion of the mean square error (MSE) and the cross entropy (CE) and the optimization of LBLSig is smoother owing to the unilateral relaxation Sigmoid function. The effectiveness of the proposed LBL and LBLSig is experimentally demonstrated in comparisons with several state-of-the-art OCC algorithms on different network structures. The source code can be found at https://github.com/ML-HDU/LBL_LBLSig.
Image hash algorithms generate compact binary representations that can be quickly matched by Hamming distance, thus become an efficient solution for large-scale image retrieval. This paper proposes RV-SSDH, a deep image hash algorithm that incorporates the classical VLAD (vector of locally aggregated descriptors) architecture into neural networks. Specifically, a novel neural network component is formed by coupling a random VLAD layer with a latent hash layer through a transform layer. This component can be combined with convolutional layers to realize a hash algorithm. We implement RV-SSDH as a point-wise algorithm that can be efficiently trained by minimizing classification error and quantization loss. Comprehensive experiments show this new architecture significantly outperforms baselines such as NetVLAD and SSDH, and offers a cost-effective trade-off in the state-of-the-art. In addition, the proposed random VLAD layer leads to satisfactory accuracy with low complexity, thus shows promising potentials as an alternative to NetVLAD.
* 10 pages, 17 figures, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Image