We present VMap, a map-like rectangular space-filling visualization, to perform vertex-centric graph exploration. Existing visualizations have limited support for quality optimization among rectangular aspect ratios, vertex-edge intersection, and data encoding accuracy. To tackle this problem, VMap integrates three novel components: (1) a desired-aspect-ratio (DAR) rectangular partitioning algorithm, (2) a two-stage rectangle adjustment algorithm, and (3) a simulated annealing based heuristic optimizer. First, to generate a rectangular space-filling layout of an input graph, we subdivide the 2D embedding of the graph into rectangles with optimization of rectangles' aspect ratios toward a desired aspect ratio. Second, to route graph edges between rectangles without vertex-edge occlusion, we devise a two-stage algorithm to adjust a rectangular layout to insert border space between rectangles. Third, to produce and arrange rectangles by considering multiple visual criteria, we design a simulated annealing based heuristic optimization to adjust vertices' 2D embedding to support trade-offs among aspect ratio quality and the encoding accuracy of vertices' weights and adjacency. We evaluated the effectiveness of VMap on both synthetic and application datasets. The resulting rectangular layout has better aspect ratio quality on synthetic data compared with the existing method for the rectangular partitioning of 2D points. On three real-world datasets, VMap achieved better encoding accuracy and attained faster generation speed compared with existing methods on graphs' rectangular layout generation. We further illustrate the usefulness of VMap for vertex-centric graph exploration through three case studies on visualizing social networks, representing academic communities, and displaying geographic information.
Deep learning based latent representations have been widely used for numerous scientific visualization applications such as isosurface similarity analysis, volume rendering, flow field synthesis, and data reduction, just to name a few. However, existing latent representations are mostly generated from raw data in an unsupervised manner, which makes it difficult to incorporate domain interest to control the size of the latent representations and the quality of the reconstructed data. In this paper, we present a novel importance-driven latent representation to facilitate domain-interest-guided scientific data visualization and analysis. We utilize spatial importance maps to represent various scientific interests and take them as the input to a feature transformation network to guide latent generation. We further reduced the latent size by a lossless entropy encoding algorithm trained together with the autoencoder, improving the storage and memory efficiency. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of latent representations generated by our method with data from multiple scientific visualization applications.
We propose VDL-Surrogate, a view-dependent neural-network-latent-based surrogate model for parameter space exploration of ensemble simulations that allows high-resolution visualizations and user-specified visual mappings. Surrogate-enabled parameter space exploration allows domain scientists to preview simulation results without having to run a large number of computationally costly simulations. Limited by computational resources, however, existing surrogate models may not produce previews with sufficient resolution for visualization and analysis. To improve the efficient use of computational resources and support high-resolution exploration, we perform ray casting from different viewpoints to collect samples and produce compact latent representations. This latent encoding process reduces the cost of surrogate model training while maintaining the output quality. In the model training stage, we select viewpoints to cover the whole viewing sphere and train corresponding VDL-Surrogate models for the selected viewpoints. In the model inference stage, we predict the latent representations at previously selected viewpoints and decode the latent representations to data space. For any given viewpoint, we make interpolations over decoded data at selected viewpoints and generate visualizations with user-specified visual mappings. We show the effectiveness and efficiency of VDL-Surrogate in cosmological and ocean simulations with quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Source code is publicly available at https://github.com/trainsn/VDL-Surrogate.
We propose GNN-Surrogate, a graph neural network-based surrogate model to explore the parameter space of ocean climate simulations. Parameter space exploration is important for domain scientists to understand the influence of input parameters (e.g., wind stress) on the simulation output (e.g., temperature). The exploration requires scientists to exhaust the complicated parameter space by running a batch of computationally expensive simulations. Our approach improves the efficiency of parameter space exploration with a surrogate model that predicts the simulation outputs accurately and efficiently. Specifically, GNN-Surrogate predicts the output field with given simulation parameters so scientists can explore the simulation parameter space with visualizations from user-specified visual mappings. Moreover, our graph-based techniques are designed for unstructured meshes, making the exploration of simulation outputs on irregular grids efficient. For efficient training, we generate hierarchical graphs and use adaptive resolutions. We give quantitative and qualitative evaluations on the MPAS-Ocean simulation to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of GNN-Surrogate. Source code is publicly available at https://github.com/trainsn/GNN-Surrogate.
We explore an online learning reinforcement learning (RL) paradigm for optimizing parallel particle tracing performance in distributed-memory systems. Our method combines three novel components: (1) a workload donation model, (2) a high-order workload estimation model, and (3) a communication cost model, to optimize the performance of data-parallel particle tracing dynamically. First, we design an RL-based workload donation model. Our workload donation model monitors the workload of processes and creates RL agents to donate particles and data blocks from high-workload processes to low-workload processes to minimize the execution time. The agents learn the donation strategy on-the-fly based on reward and cost functions. The reward and cost functions are designed to consider the processes' workload change and the data transfer cost for every donation action. Second, we propose an online workload estimation model, in order to help our RL model estimate the workload distribution of processes in future computations. Third, we design the communication cost model that considers both block and particle data exchange costs, helping the agents make effective decisions with minimized communication cost. We demonstrate that our algorithm adapts to different flow behaviors in large-scale fluid dynamics, ocean, and weather simulation data. Our algorithm improves parallel particle tracing performance in terms of parallel efficiency, load balance, and costs of I/O and communication for evaluations up to 16,384 processors.