Prompt Tuning is emerging as a scalable and cost-effective method to fine-tune Pretrained Language Models (PLMs). This study benchmarks the performance and computational efficiency of Prompt Tuning and baseline methods on a multi-label text classification task. This is applied to the use case of classifying companies into an investment firm's proprietary industry taxonomy, supporting their thematic investment strategy. Text-to-text classification with PLMs is frequently reported to outperform classification with a classification head, but has several limitations when applied to a multi-label classification problem where each label consists of multiple tokens: (a) Generated labels may not match any label in the industry taxonomy; (b) During fine-tuning, multiple labels must be provided in an arbitrary order; (c) The model provides a binary decision for each label, rather than an appropriate confidence score. Limitation (a) is addressed by applying constrained decoding using Trie Search, which slightly improves classification performance. All limitations (a), (b), and (c) are addressed by replacing the PLM's language head with a classification head. This improves performance significantly, while also reducing computational costs during inference. The results indicate the continuing need to adapt state-of-the-art methods to domain-specific tasks, even in the era of PLMs with strong generalization abilities.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have taken Knowledge Representation -- and the world -- by storm. This inflection point marks a shift from explicit knowledge representation to a renewed focus on the hybrid representation of both explicit knowledge and parametric knowledge. In this position paper, we will discuss some of the common debate points within the community on LLMs (parametric knowledge) and Knowledge Graphs (explicit knowledge) and speculate on opportunities and visions that the renewed focus brings, as well as related research topics and challenges.
Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
Language Models (LMs) have proven to be useful in various downstream applications, such as summarisation, translation, question answering and text classification. LMs are becoming increasingly important tools in Artificial Intelligence, because of the vast quantity of information they can store. In this work, we present ProP (Prompting as Probing), which utilizes GPT-3, a large Language Model originally proposed by OpenAI in 2020, to perform the task of Knowledge Base Construction (KBC). ProP implements a multi-step approach that combines a variety of prompting techniques to achieve this. Our results show that manual prompt curation is essential, that the LM must be encouraged to give answer sets of variable lengths, in particular including empty answer sets, that true/false questions are a useful device to increase precision on suggestions generated by the LM, that the size of the LM is a crucial factor, and that a dictionary of entity aliases improves the LM score. Our evaluation study indicates that these proposed techniques can substantially enhance the quality of the final predictions: ProP won track 2 of the LM-KBC competition, outperforming the baseline by 36.4 percentage points. Our implementation is available on https://github.com/HEmile/iswc-challenge.