The application of modern machine learning to retinal image analyses offers valuable insights into a broad range of human health conditions beyond ophthalmic diseases. Additionally, data sharing is key to fully realizing the potential of machine learning models by providing a rich and diverse collection of training data. However, the personally-identifying nature of retinal images, encompassing the unique vascular structure of each individual, often prevents this data from being shared openly. While prior works have explored image de-identification strategies based on synthetic averaging of images in other domains (e.g. facial images), existing techniques face difficulty in preserving both privacy and clinical utility in retinal images, as we demonstrate in our work. We therefore introduce k-SALSA, a generative adversarial network (GAN)-based framework for synthesizing retinal fundus images that summarize a given private dataset while satisfying the privacy notion of k-anonymity. k-SALSA brings together state-of-the-art techniques for training and inverting GANs to achieve practical performance on retinal images. Furthermore, k-SALSA leverages a new technique, called local style alignment, to generate a synthetic average that maximizes the retention of fine-grain visual patterns in the source images, thus improving the clinical utility of the generated images. On two benchmark datasets of diabetic retinopathy (EyePACS and APTOS), we demonstrate our improvement upon existing methods with respect to image fidelity, classification performance, and mitigation of membership inference attacks. Our work represents a step toward broader sharing of retinal images for scientific collaboration. Code is available at https://github.com/hcholab/k-salsa.
Data augmentation is key to improving the generalization ability of deep learning models. Mixup is a simple and widely-used data augmentation technique that has proven effective in alleviating the problems of overfitting and data scarcity. Also, recent studies of saliency-aware Mixup in the image domain show that preserving discriminative parts is beneficial to improving the generalization performance. However, these Mixup-based data augmentations are underexplored in 3D vision, especially in point clouds. In this paper, we propose SageMix, a saliency-guided Mixup for point clouds to preserve salient local structures. Specifically, we extract salient regions from two point clouds and smoothly combine them into one continuous shape. With a simple sequential sampling by re-weighted saliency scores, SageMix preserves the local structure of salient regions. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing Mixup methods in various benchmark point cloud datasets. With PointNet++, our method achieves an accuracy gain of 2.6% and 4.0% over standard training in 3D Warehouse dataset (MN40) and ScanObjectNN, respectively. In addition to generalization performance, SageMix improves robustness and uncertainty calibration. Moreover, when adopting our method to various tasks including part segmentation and standard 2D image classification, our method achieves competitive performance.