Retrieval-enhanced methods have become a primary approach in fact verification (FV); it requires reasoning over multiple retrieved pieces of evidence to verify the integrity of a claim. To retrieve evidence, existing work often employs off-the-shelf retrieval models whose design is based on the probability ranking principle. We argue that, rather than relevance, for FV we need to focus on the utility that a claim verifier derives from the retrieved evidence. We introduce the feedback-based evidence retriever(FER) that optimizes the evidence retrieval process by incorporating feedback from the claim verifier. As a feedback signal we use the divergence in utility between how effectively the verifier utilizes the retrieved evidence and the ground-truth evidence to produce the final claim label. Empirical studies demonstrate the superiority of FER over prevailing baselines.
Given comparative text, comparative relation extraction aims to extract two targets (\eg two cameras) in comparison and the aspect they are compared for (\eg image quality). The extracted comparative relations form the basis of further opinion analysis.Existing solutions formulate this task as a sequence labeling task, to extract targets and aspects. However, they cannot directly extract comparative relation(s) from text. In this paper, we show that comparative relations can be directly extracted with high accuracy, by generative model. Based on GPT-2, we propose a Generation-based Comparative Relation Extractor (GCRE-GPT). Experiment results show that \modelname achieves state-of-the-art accuracy on two datasets.