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Abstract:Deep-Learning-based Variational Monte Carlo (DL-VMC) has recently emerged as a highly accurate approach for finding approximate solutions to the many-electron Schr\"odinger equation. Despite its favorable scaling with the number of electrons, $\mathcal{O}(n_\text{el}^{4})$, the practical value of DL-VMC is limited by the high cost of optimizing the neural network weights for every system studied. To mitigate this problem, recent research has proposed optimizing a single neural network across multiple systems, reducing the cost per system. Here we extend this approach to solids, where similar but distinct calculations using different geometries, boundary conditions, and supercell sizes are often required. We show how to optimize a single ansatz across all of these variations, reducing the required number of optimization steps by an order of magnitude. Furthermore, we exploit the transfer capabilities of a pre-trained network. We successfully transfer a network, pre-trained on 2x2x2 supercells of LiH, to 3x3x3 supercells. This reduces the number of optimization steps required to simulate the large system by a factor of 50 compared to previous work.

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Abstract:We present a variational Monte Carlo algorithm for estimating the lowest excited states of a quantum system which is a natural generalization of the estimation of ground states. The method has no free parameters and requires no explicit orthogonalization of the different states, instead transforming the problem of finding excited states of a given system into that of finding the ground state of an expanded system. Expected values of arbitrary observables can be calculated, including off-diagonal expectations between different states such as the transition dipole moment. Although the method is entirely general, it works particularly well in conjunction with recent work on using neural networks as variational Ansatze for many-electron systems, and we show that by combining this method with the FermiNet and Psiformer Ansatze we can accurately recover vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths on molecules as large as benzene. Beyond the examples on molecules presented here, we expect this technique will be of great interest for applications of variational quantum Monte Carlo to atomic, nuclear and condensed matter physics.

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Authors:Wan Tong Lou, Halvard Sutterud, Gino Cassella, W. M. C. Foulkes, Johannes Knolle, David Pfau, James S. Spencer

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Abstract:Understanding superfluidity remains a major goal of condensed matter physics. Here we tackle this challenge utilizing the recently developed Fermionic neural network (FermiNet) wave function Ansatz for variational Monte Carlo calculations. We study the unitary Fermi gas, a system with strong, short-range, two-body interactions known to possess a superfluid ground state but difficult to describe quantitively. We demonstrate key limitations of the FermiNet Ansatz in studying the unitary Fermi gas and propose a simple modification that outperforms the original FermiNet significantly, giving highly accurate results. We prove mathematically that the new Ansatz is a strict generalization of the original FermiNet architecture, despite the use of fewer parameters. Our approach shares several advantanges with the FermiNet: the use of a neural network removes the need for an underlying basis set; and the flexiblity of the network yields extremely accurate results within a variational quantum Monte Carlo framework that provides access to unbiased estimates of arbitrary ground-state expectation values. We discuss how the method can be extended to study other superfluids.

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