Music generated by deep learning methods often suffers from a lack of coherence and long-term organization. Yet, multi-scale hierarchical structure is a distinctive feature of music signals. To leverage this information, we propose a structure-informed positional encoding framework for music generation with Transformers. We design three variants in terms of absolute, relative and non-stationary positional information. We comprehensively test them on two symbolic music generation tasks: next-timestep prediction and accompaniment generation. As a comparison, we choose multiple baselines from the literature and demonstrate the merits of our methods using several musically-motivated evaluation metrics. In particular, our methods improve the melodic and structural consistency of the generated pieces.
* IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal
Processing (ICASSP), 2024
In neural audio signal processing, pitch conditioning has been used to enhance the performance of synthesizers. However, jointly training pitch estimators and synthesizers is a challenge when using standard audio-to-audio reconstruction loss, leading to reliance on external pitch trackers. To address this issue, we propose using a spectral loss function inspired by optimal transportation theory that minimizes the displacement of spectral energy. We validate this approach through an unsupervised autoencoding task that fits a harmonic template to harmonic signals. We jointly estimate the fundamental frequency and amplitudes of harmonics using a lightweight encoder and reconstruct the signals using a differentiable harmonic synthesizer. The proposed approach offers a promising direction for improving unsupervised parameter estimation in neural audio applications.
* IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal
Processing, Apr 2024, Seoul, South Korea * Accepted in ICASSP 2024
Significant strides have been made in creating voice identity representations using speech data. However, the same level of progress has not been achieved for singing voices. To bridge this gap, we suggest a framework for training singer identity encoders to extract representations suitable for various singing-related tasks, such as singing voice similarity and synthesis. We explore different self-supervised learning techniques on a large collection of isolated vocal tracks and apply data augmentations during training to ensure that the representations are invariant to pitch and content variations. We evaluate the quality of the resulting representations on singer similarity and identification tasks across multiple datasets, with a particular emphasis on out-of-domain generalization. Our proposed framework produces high-quality embeddings that outperform both speaker verification and wav2vec 2.0 pre-trained baselines on singing voice while operating at 44.1 kHz. We release our code and trained models to facilitate further research on singing voice and related areas.
* Proceedings of the 24th International Society for Music
Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2023), Milan, Italy * Accepted at the ISMIR conference, Milan, Italy, 2023
We introduce Resilient Multiple Choice Learning (rMCL), an extension of the MCL approach for conditional distribution estimation in regression settings where multiple targets may be sampled for each training input. Multiple Choice Learning is a simple framework to tackle multimodal density estimation, using the Winner-Takes-All (WTA) loss for a set of hypotheses. In regression settings, the existing MCL variants focus on merging the hypotheses, thereby eventually sacrificing the diversity of the predictions. In contrast, our method relies on a novel learned scoring scheme underpinned by a mathematical framework based on Voronoi tessellations of the output space, from which we can derive a probabilistic interpretation. After empirically validating rMCL with experiments on synthetic data, we further assess its merits on the sound source localization problem, demonstrating its practical usefulness and the relevance of its interpretation.
* Advances in neural information processing systems, Dec 2023, New
Orleans, United States
Deep neural network models have become the dominant approach to a large variety of tasks within music information retrieval (MIR). These models generally require large amounts of (annotated) training data to achieve high accuracy. Because not all applications in MIR have sufficient quantities of training data, it is becoming increasingly common to transfer models across domains. This approach allows representations derived for one task to be applied to another, and can result in high accuracy with less stringent training data requirements for the downstream task. However, the properties of pre-trained audio embeddings are not fully understood. Specifically, and unlike traditionally engineered features, the representations extracted from pre-trained deep networks may embed and propagate biases from the model's training regime. This work investigates the phenomenon of bias propagation in the context of pre-trained audio representations for the task of instrument recognition. We first demonstrate that three different pre-trained representations (VGGish, OpenL3, and YAMNet) exhibit comparable performance when constrained to a single dataset, but differ in their ability to generalize across datasets (OpenMIC and IRMAS). We then investigate dataset identity and genre distribution as potential sources of bias. Finally, we propose and evaluate post-processing countermeasures to mitigate the effects of bias, and improve generalization across datasets.
* 7 pages, 3 figures, accepted to the conference of the International
Society for Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR 2023)
We study cross-modal recommendation of music tracks to be used as soundtracks for videos. This problem is known as the music supervision task. We build on a self-supervised system that learns a content association between music and video. In addition to the adequacy of content, adequacy of structure is crucial in music supervision to obtain relevant recommendations. We propose a novel approach to significantly improve the system's performance using structure-aware recommendation. The core idea is to consider not only the full audio-video clips, but rather shorter segments for training and inference. We find that using semantic segments and ranking the tracks according to sequence alignment costs significantly improves the results. We investigate the impact of different ranking metrics and segmentation methods.
* IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 18 February 2022
This paper tackles two major problem settings for interpretability of audio processing networks, post-hoc and by-design interpretation. For post-hoc interpretation, we aim to interpret decisions of a network in terms of high-level audio objects that are also listenable for the end-user. This is extended to present an inherently interpretable model with high performance. To this end, we propose a novel interpreter design that incorporates non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). In particular, an interpreter is trained to generate a regularized intermediate embedding from hidden layers of a target network, learnt as time-activations of a pre-learnt NMF dictionary. Our methodology allows us to generate intuitive audio-based interpretations that explicitly enhance parts of the input signal most relevant for a network's decision. We demonstrate our method's applicability on a variety of classification tasks, including multi-label data for real-world audio and music.
* Under submission at IEEE/ACM TASLP. arXiv admin note: text overlap
As music has become more available especially on music streaming platforms, people have started to have distinct preferences to fit to their varying listening situations, also known as context. Hence, there has been a growing interest in considering the user's situation when recommending music to users. Previous works have proposed user-aware autotaggers to infer situation-related tags from music content and user's global listening preferences. However, in a practical music retrieval system, the autotagger could be only used by assuming that the context class is explicitly provided by the user. In this work, for designing a fully automatised music retrieval system, we propose to disambiguate the user's listening information from their stream data. Namely, we propose a system which can generate a situational playlist for a user at a certain time 1) by leveraging user-aware music autotaggers, and 2) by automatically inferring the user's situation from stream data (e.g. device, network) and user's general profile information (e.g. age). Experiments show that such a context-aware personalized music retrieval system is feasible, but the performance decreases in the case of new users, new tracks or when the number of context classes increases.
Understanding generalization in modern machine learning settings has been one of the major challenges in statistical learning theory. In this context, recent years have witnessed the development of various generalization bounds suggesting different complexity notions such as the mutual information between the data sample and the algorithm output, compressibility of the hypothesis space, and the fractal dimension of the hypothesis space. While these bounds have illuminated the problem at hand from different angles, their suggested complexity notions might appear seemingly unrelated, thereby restricting their high-level impact. In this study, we prove novel generalization bounds through the lens of rate-distortion theory, and explicitly relate the concepts of mutual information, compressibility, and fractal dimensions in a single mathematical framework. Our approach consists of (i) defining a generalized notion of compressibility by using source coding concepts, and (ii) showing that the `compression error rate' can be linked to the generalization error both in expectation and with high probability. We show that in the `lossless compression' setting, we recover and improve existing mutual information-based bounds, whereas a `lossy compression' scheme allows us to link generalization to the rate-distortion dimension -- a particular notion of fractal dimension. Our results bring a more unified perspective on generalization and open up several future research directions.