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S. Chandra Mouli, Danielle C. Maddix, Shima Alizadeh, Gaurav Gupta, Andrew Stuart, Michael W. Mahoney, Yuyang Wang

Existing work in scientific machine learning (SciML) has shown that data-driven learning of solution operators can provide a fast approximate alternative to classical numerical partial differential equation (PDE) solvers. Of these, Neural Operators (NOs) have emerged as particularly promising. We observe that several uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods for NOs fail for test inputs that are even moderately out-of-domain (OOD), even when the model approximates the solution well for in-domain tasks. To address this limitation, we show that ensembling several NOs can identify high-error regions and provide good uncertainty estimates that are well-correlated with prediction errors. Based on this, we propose a cost-effective alternative, DiverseNO, that mimics the properties of the ensemble by encouraging diverse predictions from its multiple heads in the last feed-forward layer. We then introduce Operator-ProbConserv, a method that uses these well-calibrated UQ estimates within the ProbConserv framework to update the model. Our empirical results show that Operator-ProbConserv enhances OOD model performance for a variety of challenging PDE problems and satisfies physical constraints such as conservation laws.

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Jin-Long Wu, Matthew E. Levine, Tapio Schneider, Andrew Stuart

Complex dynamical systems are notoriously difficult to model because some degrees of freedom (e.g., small scales) may be computationally unresolvable or are incompletely understood, yet they are dynamically important. For example, the small scales of cloud dynamics and droplet formation are crucial for controlling climate, yet are unresolvable in global climate models. Semi-empirical closure models for the effects of unresolved degrees of freedom often exist and encode important domain-specific knowledge. Building on such closure models and correcting them through learning the structural errors can be an effective way of fusing data with domain knowledge. Here we describe a general approach, principles, and algorithms for learning about structural errors. Key to our approach is to include structural error models inside the models of complex systems, for example, in closure models for unresolved scales. The structural errors then map, usually nonlinearly, to observable data. As a result, however, mismatches between model output and data are only indirectly informative about structural errors, due to a lack of labeled pairs of inputs and outputs of structural error models. Additionally, derivatives of the model may not exist or be readily available. We discuss how structural error models can be learned from indirect data with derivative-free Kalman inversion algorithms and variants, how sparsity constraints enforce a "do no harm" principle, and various ways of modeling structural errors. We also discuss the merits of using non-local and/or stochastic error models. In addition, we demonstrate how data assimilation techniques can assist the learning about structural errors in non-ergodic systems. The concepts and algorithms are illustrated in two numerical examples based on the Lorenz-96 system and a human glucose-insulin model.

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Tapio Helin, Andrew Stuart, Aretha Teckentrup, Konstantinos Zygalakis

Bayesian posterior distributions arising in modern applications, including inverse problems in partial differential equation models in tomography and subsurface flow, are often computationally intractable due to the large computational cost of evaluating the data likelihood. To alleviate this problem, we consider using Gaussian process regression to build a surrogate model for the likelihood, resulting in an approximate posterior distribution that is amenable to computations in practice. This work serves as an introduction to Gaussian process regression, in particular in the context of building surrogate models for inverse problems, and presents new insights into a suitable choice of training points. We show that the error between the true and approximate posterior distribution can be bounded by the error between the true and approximate likelihood, measured in the $L^2$-norm weighted by the true posterior, and that efficiently bounding the error between the true and approximate likelihood in this norm suggests choosing the training points in the Gaussian process surrogate model based on the true posterior.

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Nikola Kovachki, Zongyi Li, Burigede Liu, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Andrew Stuart, Anima Anandkumar

The classical development of neural networks has primarily focused on learning mappings between finite dimensional Euclidean spaces or finite sets. We propose a generalization of neural networks tailored to learn operators mapping between infinite dimensional function spaces. We formulate the approximation of operators by composition of a class of linear integral operators and nonlinear activation functions, so that the composed operator can approximate complex nonlinear operators. We prove a universal approximation theorem for our construction. Furthermore, we introduce four classes of operator parameterizations: graph-based operators, low-rank operators, multipole graph-based operators, and Fourier operators and describe efficient algorithms for computing with each one. The proposed neural operators are resolution-invariant: they share the same network parameters between different discretizations of the underlying function spaces and can be used for zero-shot super-resolutions. Numerically, the proposed models show superior performance compared to existing machine learning based methodologies on Burgers' equation, Darcy flow, and the Navier-Stokes equation, while being several order of magnitude faster compared to conventional PDE solvers.

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Zongyi Li, Nikola Kovachki, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Burigede Liu, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Andrew Stuart, Anima Anandkumar

Chaotic systems are notoriously challenging to predict because of their instability. Small errors accumulate in the simulation of each time step, resulting in completely different trajectories. However, the trajectories of many prominent chaotic systems live in a low-dimensional subspace (attractor). If the system is Markovian, the attractor is uniquely determined by the Markov operator that maps the evolution of infinitesimal time steps. This makes it possible to predict the behavior of the chaotic system by learning the Markov operator even if we cannot predict the exact trajectory. Recently, a new framework for learning resolution-invariant solution operators for PDEs was proposed, known as neural operators. In this work, we train a Markov neural operator (MNO) with only the local one-step evolution information. We then compose the learned operator to obtain the global attractor and invariant measure. Such a Markov neural operator forms a discrete semigroup and we empirically observe that does not collapse or blow up. Experiments show neural operators are more accurate and stable compared to previous methods on chaotic systems such as the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky and Navier-Stokes equations.

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Zongyi Li, Nikola Kovachki, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Burigede Liu, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Andrew Stuart, Anima Anandkumar

The classical development of neural networks has primarily focused on learning mappings between finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces. Recently, this has been generalized to neural operators that learn mappings between function spaces. For partial differential equations (PDEs), neural operators directly learn the mapping from any functional parametric dependence to the solution. Thus, they learn an entire family of PDEs, in contrast to classical methods which solve one instance of the equation. In this work, we formulate a new neural operator by parameterizing the integral kernel directly in Fourier space, allowing for an expressive and efficient architecture. We perform experiments on Burgers' equation, Darcy flow, and the Navier-Stokes equation (including the turbulent regime). Our Fourier neural operator shows state-of-the-art performance compared to existing neural network methodologies and it is up to three orders of magnitude faster compared to traditional PDE solvers.

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Zongyi Li, Nikola Kovachki, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Burigede Liu, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Andrew Stuart, Anima Anandkumar

One of the main challenges in using deep learning-based methods for simulating physical systems and solving partial differential equations (PDEs) is formulating physics-based data in the desired structure for neural networks. Graph neural networks (GNNs) have gained popularity in this area since graphs offer a natural way of modeling particle interactions and provide a clear way of discretizing the continuum models. However, the graphs constructed for approximating such tasks usually ignore long-range interactions due to unfavorable scaling of the computational complexity with respect to the number of nodes. The errors due to these approximations scale with the discretization of the system, thereby not allowing for generalization under mesh-refinement. Inspired by the classical multipole methods, we propose a novel multi-level graph neural network framework that captures interaction at all ranges with only linear complexity. Our multi-level formulation is equivalent to recursively adding inducing points to the kernel matrix, unifying GNNs with multi-resolution matrix factorization of the kernel. Experiments confirm our multi-graph network learns discretization-invariant solution operators to PDEs and can be evaluated in linear time.

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Dmitry Burov, Dimitrios Giannakis, Krithika Manohar, Andrew Stuart

Data-driven prediction is becoming increasingly widespread as the volume of data available grows and as algorithmic development matches this growth. The nature of the predictions made, and the manner in which they should be interpreted, depends crucially on the extent to which the variables chosen for prediction are Markovian, or approximately Markovian. Multiscale systems provide a framework in which this issue can be analyzed. In this work kernel analog forecasting methods are studied from the perspective of data generated by multiscale dynamical systems. The problems chosen exhibit a variety of different Markovian closures, using both averaging and homogenization; furthermore, settings where scale-separation is not present and the predicted variables are non-Markovian, are also considered. The studies provide guidance for the interpretation of data-driven prediction methods when used in practice.

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Zongyi Li, Nikola Kovachki, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Burigede Liu, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Andrew Stuart, Anima Anandkumar

The classical development of neural networks has been primarily for mappings between a finite-dimensional Euclidean space and a set of classes, or between two finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces. The purpose of this work is to generalize neural networks so that they can learn mappings between infinite-dimensional spaces (operators). The key innovation in our work is that a single set of network parameters, within a carefully designed network architecture, may be used to describe mappings between infinite-dimensional spaces and between different finite-dimensional approximations of those spaces. We formulate approximation of the infinite-dimensional mapping by composing nonlinear activation functions and a class of integral operators. The kernel integration is computed by message passing on graph networks. This approach has substantial practical consequences which we will illustrate in the context of mappings between input data to partial differential equations (PDEs) and their solutions. In this context, such learned networks can generalize among different approximation methods for the PDE (such as finite difference or finite element methods) and among approximations corresponding to different underlying levels of resolution and discretization. Experiments confirm that the proposed graph kernel network does have the desired properties and show competitive performance compared to the state of the art solvers.

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