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Authors:Erik Buhmann, Frank Gaede, Gregor Kasieczka, Anatolii Korol, William Korcari, Katja Krüger, Peter McKeown

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Abstract:Fast simulation of the energy depositions in high-granular detectors is needed for future collider experiments with ever increasing luminosities. Generative machine learning (ML) models have been shown to speed up and augment the traditional simulation chain in physics analysis. However, the majority of previous efforts were limited to models relying on fixed, regular detector readout geometries. A major advancement is the recently introduced CaloClouds model, a geometry-independent diffusion model, which generates calorimeter showers as point clouds for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the envisioned International Large Detector (ILD). In this work, we introduce CaloClouds II which features a number of key improvements. This includes continuous time score-based modelling, which allows for a 25 step sampling with comparable fidelity to CaloClouds while yielding a $6\times$ speed-up over Geant4 on a single CPU ($5\times$ over CaloClouds). We further distill the diffusion model into a consistency model allowing for accurate sampling in a single step and resulting in a $46\times$ ($37\times$) speed-up. This constitutes the first application of consistency distillation for the generation of calorimeter showers.

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Authors:Erik Buhmann, Sascha Diefenbacher, Engin Eren, Frank Gaede, Gregor Kasieczka, Anatolii Korol, William Korcari, Katja Krüger, Peter McKeown

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Abstract:Simulating showers of particles in highly-granular detectors is a key frontier in the application of machine learning to particle physics. Achieving high accuracy and speed with generative machine learning models would enable them to augment traditional simulations and alleviate a major computing constraint. This work achieves a major breakthrough in this task by, for the first time, directly generating a point cloud of a few thousand space points with energy depositions in the detector in 3D space without relying on a fixed-grid structure. This is made possible by two key innovations: i) using recent improvements in generative modeling we apply a diffusion model to generate ii) an initial even higher-resolution point cloud of up to 40,000 so-called Geant4 steps which is subsequently down-sampled to the desired number of up to 6,000 space points. We showcase the performance of this approach using the specific example of simulating photon showers in the planned electromagnetic calorimeter of the International Large Detector (ILD) and achieve overall good modeling of physically relevant distributions.

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Authors:Sascha Diefenbacher, Engin Eren, Gregor Kasieczka, Anatolii Korol, Benjamin Nachman, David Shih

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Abstract:Significant advances in deep learning have led to more widely used and precise neural network-based generative models such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). We introduce a post-hoc correction to deep generative models to further improve their fidelity, based on the Deep neural networks using the Classification for Tuning and Reweighting (DCTR) protocol. The correction takes the form of a reweighting function that can be applied to generated examples when making predictions from the simulation. We illustrate this approach using GANs trained on standard multimodal probability densities as well as calorimeter simulations from high energy physics. We show that the weighted GAN examples significantly improve the accuracy of the generated samples without a large loss in statistical power. This approach could be applied to any generative model and is a promising refinement method for high energy physics applications and beyond.

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