Traditional NER systems are typically trained to recognize coarse-grained entities, and less attention is given to classifying entities into a hierarchy of fine-grained lower-level subtypes. This article aims to advance Arabic NER with fine-grained entities. We chose to extend Wojood (an open-source Nested Arabic Named Entity Corpus) with subtypes. In particular, four main entity types in Wojood, geopolitical entity (GPE), location (LOC), organization (ORG), and facility (FAC), are extended with 31 subtypes. To do this, we first revised Wojood's annotations of GPE, LOC, ORG, and FAC to be compatible with the LDC's ACE guidelines, which yielded 5, 614 changes. Second, all mentions of GPE, LOC, ORG, and FAC (~44K) in Wojood are manually annotated with the LDC's ACE sub-types. We refer to this extended version of Wojood as WojoodF ine. To evaluate our annotations, we measured the inter-annotator agreement (IAA) using both Cohen's Kappa and F1 score, resulting in 0.9861 and 0.9889, respectively. To compute the baselines of WojoodF ine, we fine-tune three pre-trained Arabic BERT encoders in three settings: flat NER, nested NER and nested NER with subtypes and achieved F1 score of 0.920, 0.866, and 0.885, respectively. Our corpus and models are open-source and available at https://sina.birzeit.edu/wojood/.
Large language models (LLMs) finetuned to follow human instructions have recently emerged as a breakthrough in AI. Models such as Google Bard and OpenAI ChatGPT, for example, are surprisingly powerful tools for question answering, code debugging, and dialogue generation. Despite the purported multilingual proficiency of these models, their linguistic inclusivity remains insufficiently explored. Considering this constraint, we present a thorough assessment of Bard and ChatGPT (encompassing both GPT-3.5 and GPT-4) regarding their machine translation proficiencies across ten varieties of Arabic. Our evaluation covers diverse Arabic varieties such as Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, and several nuanced dialectal variants. Furthermore, we undertake a human-centric study to scrutinize the efficacy of the most recent model, Bard, in following human instructions during translation tasks. Our exhaustive analysis indicates that LLMs may encounter challenges with certain Arabic dialects, particularly those for which minimal public data exists, such as Algerian and Mauritanian dialects. However, they exhibit satisfactory performance with more prevalent dialects, albeit occasionally trailing behind established commercial systems like Google Translate. Additionally, our analysis reveals a circumscribed capability of Bard in aligning with human instructions in translation contexts. Collectively, our findings underscore that prevailing LLMs remain far from inclusive, with only limited ability to cater for the linguistic and cultural intricacies of diverse communities.
Misinformation spreading in mainstream and social media has been misleading users in different ways. Manual detection and verification efforts by journalists and fact-checkers can no longer cope with the great scale and quick spread of misleading information. This motivated research and industry efforts to develop systems for analyzing and verifying news spreading online. The SemEval-2023 Task 3 is an attempt to address several subtasks under this overarching problem, targeting writing techniques used in news articles to affect readers' opinions. The task addressed three subtasks with six languages, in addition to three ``surprise'' test languages, resulting in 27 different test setups. This paper describes our participating system to this task. Our team is one of the 6 teams that successfully submitted runs for all setups. The official results show that our system is ranked among the top 3 systems for 10 out of the 27 setups.