Large language models (LLMs) finetuned to follow human instructions have recently emerged as a breakthrough in AI. Models such as Google Bard and OpenAI ChatGPT, for example, are surprisingly powerful tools for question answering, code debugging, and dialogue generation. Despite the purported multilingual proficiency of these models, their linguistic inclusivity remains insufficiently explored. Considering this constraint, we present a thorough assessment of Bard and ChatGPT (encompassing both GPT-3.5 and GPT-4) regarding their machine translation proficiencies across ten varieties of Arabic. Our evaluation covers diverse Arabic varieties such as Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, and several nuanced dialectal variants. Furthermore, we undertake a human-centric study to scrutinize the efficacy of the most recent model, Bard, in following human instructions during translation tasks. Our exhaustive analysis indicates that LLMs may encounter challenges with certain Arabic dialects, particularly those for which minimal public data exists, such as Algerian and Mauritanian dialects. However, they exhibit satisfactory performance with more prevalent dialects, albeit occasionally trailing behind established commercial systems like Google Translate. Additionally, our analysis reveals a circumscribed capability of Bard in aligning with human instructions in translation contexts. Collectively, our findings underscore that prevailing LLMs remain far from inclusive, with only limited ability to cater for the linguistic and cultural intricacies of diverse communities.
The recent emergence of ChatGPT has brought a revolutionary change in the landscape of NLP. Although ChatGPT has consistently shown impressive performance on English benchmarks, its exact capabilities on most other languages remain largely unknown. To better understand ChatGPT's capabilities on Arabic, we present a large-scale evaluation of the model on a broad range of Arabic NLP tasks. Namely, we evaluate ChatGPT on 32 diverse natural language understanding and generation tasks on over 60 different datasets. To the best of our knowledge, our work offers the first performance analysis of ChatGPT on Arabic NLP at such a massive scale. Our results show that, despite its success on English benchmarks, ChatGPT trained in-context (few-shot) is consistently outperformed by much smaller dedicated models finetuned on Arabic. These results suggest that there is significant place for improvement for instruction-tuned LLMs such as ChatGPT.
Task agnostic generative pretraining (GPT) has recently proved promising for zero- and few-shot learning, gradually diverting attention from the expensive supervised learning paradigm. Although the community is accumulating knowledge as to capabilities of English-language autoregressive models such as GPT-3 adopting this generative approach, scholarship about these models remains acutely Anglocentric. Consequently, the community currently has serious gaps in its understanding of this class of models, their potential, and their societal impacts in diverse settings, linguistic traditions, and cultures. To alleviate this issue for Arabic, a collection of diverse languages and language varieties with more than $400$ million population, we introduce JASMINE, a suite of powerful Arabic autoregressive Transformer language models ranging in size between 300 million-13 billion parameters. We pretrain our new models with large amounts of diverse data (400GB of text) from different Arabic varieties and domains. We evaluate JASMINE extensively in both intrinsic and extrinsic settings, using a comprehensive benchmark for zero- and few-shot learning across a wide range of NLP tasks. We also carefully develop and release a novel benchmark for both automated and human evaluation of Arabic autoregressive models focused at investigating potential social biases, harms, and toxicity in these models. We aim to responsibly release our models with interested researchers, along with code for experimenting with them
The prevalence of abusive language on different online platforms has been a major concern that raises the need for automated cross-platform abusive language detection. However, prior works focus on concatenating data from multiple platforms, inherently adopting Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) method. In this work, we address this challenge from the perspective of domain generalization objective. We design SCL-Fish, a supervised contrastive learning integrated meta-learning algorithm to detect abusive language on unseen platforms. Our experimental analysis shows that SCL-Fish achieves better performance over ERM and the existing state-of-the-art models. We also show that SCL-Fish is data-efficient and achieves comparable performance with the large-scale pre-trained models upon finetuning for the abusive language detection task.