The security issues of passive optical networks (PONs) have always been a concern due to broadcast transmission. Physical-layer security enhancement for the coherent PON should be as significant as improving transmission performance. In this paper, we propose the advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm and geometric constellation shaping four-level pulse amplitude modulation (GCS-PAM4) pilot-based key distribution for secure coherent PON. The first bit of the GCS-PAM4 pilot is used for the hardware-efficient carrier phase recovery (CPR), while the second bit is utilized for key distribution without occupying the additional overhead. The key bits are encoded by the polar code to ensure error-free distribution. Frequent key updates are permitted for every codeword to improve the security of coherent PON. The experimental results of the 200-Gbps secure coherent PON using digital subcarrier multiplexing show that the GCS-PAM4 pilot-based key distribution could be error-free at upstream transmission without occupying the additional overhead and the eavesdropping would be prevented by AES algorithm at downstream transmission. Moreover, there is almost no performance penalty on the CPR using the GCS-PAM4 pilot compared to the binary phase shift keying pilot.
Point-to-multi-point (PtMP) optical networks become the main solutions for network-edge applications such as passive optical networks and radio access networks. Entropy-loading digital subcarrier multiplexing (DSCM) is the core technology to achieve low latency and approach high capacity for flexible PtMP optical networks. However, the high peak-to-average power ratio of the entropy-loading DSCM signal limits the power budget and restricts the capacity, which can be reduced effectively by clipping operation. In this paper, we derive the theoretical capacity limitation of the flexible PtMP optical networks based on the entropy-loading DSCM signal. Meanwhile, an optimal clipping ratio for the clipping operation is acquired to approach the highest capacity limitation. Based on an accurate clipping-noise model under the optimal clipping ratio, we establish a three-dimensional look-up table for bit-error ratio, spectral efficiency, and link loss. Based on the three-dimensional look-up table, an optimization strategy is proposed to acquire optimal spectral efficiencies for achieving a higher capacity of the flexible PtMP optical networks.
We propose a method named AudioFormer,which learns audio feature representations through the acquisition of discrete acoustic codes and subsequently fine-tunes them for audio classification tasks. Initially,we introduce a novel perspective by considering the audio classification task as a form of natural language understanding (NLU). Leveraging an existing neural audio codec model,we generate discrete acoustic codes and utilize them to train a masked language model (MLM),thereby obtaining audio feature representations. Furthermore,we pioneer the integration of a Multi-Positive sample Contrastive (MPC) learning approach. This method enables the learning of joint representations among multiple discrete acoustic codes within the same audio input. In our experiments,we treat discrete acoustic codes as textual data and train a masked language model using a cloze-like methodology,ultimately deriving high-quality audio representations. Notably,the MPC learning technique effectively captures collaborative representations among distinct positive samples. Our research outcomes demonstrate that AudioFormer attains significantly improved performance compared to prevailing monomodal audio classification models across multiple datasets,and even outperforms audio-visual multimodal classification models on select datasets. Specifically,our approach achieves remarkable results on datasets including AudioSet (2M,20K),and FSD50K,with performance scores of 53.9,45.1,and 65.6,respectively. We have openly shared both the code and models: https://github.com/LZH-0225/AudioFormer.git.
Beyond 100G passive optical networks (PONs) will be required to meet the ever-increasing traffic demand in the future. Coherent optical technologies are the competitive solutions for the future beyond 100G PON but also face challenges such as the high computational complexity of digital signal processing (DSP). A high oversampling rate in coherent optical technologies results in the high computational complexity of DSP. Therefore, DSP running in a non-integer-oversampling below 2 samples-per-symbol (sps) is preferred, which can not only reduce computational complexity but also obviously lower the requirement for the analog-to-digital converter. In this paper, we propose a non-integer-oversampling DSP for meeting the requirements of coherent PON. The proposed DSP working at 9/8-sps and 5/4-sps oversampling rates can be reduced by 44.04% and 40.78% computational complexity compared to that working at the 2-sps oversampling rate, respectively. Moreover, a 400-Gb/s-net-rate coherent PON based on digital subcarrier multiplexing was demonstrated to verify the feasibility of the non-integer-oversampling DSP. There is almost no penalty on the receiver sensitivity when the non-integer-oversampling DSP is adopted. In conclusion, the non-integer-oversampling DSP shows great potential in the future coherent PON.
The capacity and capacity-achieving distribution for intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM-DD) fiber-optic channels is theoretically investigated. Different from coherent fiber-optic channels, we indicate that the capacity-achieving distribution of IM-DD systems should be discussed separately in two cases: 1) IM-DD systems without optical amplifier, which are constrained in peak power; 2) IM-DD systems with optical amplifier, which are the average power constraint (APC) system. For the two models, the maximum mutual information achieving distribution, instead of the maximum input entropy achieving distribution, is numerically computed by the iterative Blahut-Arimoto (BA) algorithm. For the IM-DD system under peak power constraint (PPC), a dynamic-assignment BA algorithm is applied to find the capacity-achieving distribution with minimum cardinality. It is observed that the maximum difference between the minimum input cardinality and capacity is around 0.8 bits. For a fixed support input cardinality, although the observed shaping gain is small and only appears in low peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) regions in the PPC IM-DD system, the probabilistic shaping technique can also be used to introduce rate adaptation to the system by adjusting the shaping and FEC overheads since the capacity-achieving distribution is symmetric. In the IM-DD system under APC, a modified BA algorithm is investigated to solve for the capacity and capacity-achieving distribution, and a significant shaping gain is observed. For PAM8 and PAM16 modulation formats, 0.294 bits/symbol and 0.531 bits/symbol shaping gain can be obtained at the SNR of 20dB. Furthermore, since the capacity-achieving distribution is asymmetric in this case, a practical discussion of the PS technique is also presented.
Because of the widespread existence of noise and data corruption, recovering the true regression parameters with a certain proportion of corrupted response variables is an essential task. Methods to overcome this problem often involve robust least-squares regression, but few methods perform well when confronted with severe adaptive adversarial attacks. In many applications, prior knowledge is often available from historical data or engineering experience, and by incorporating prior information into a robust regression method, we develop an effective robust regression method that can resist adaptive adversarial attacks. First, we propose the novel TRIP (hard Thresholding approach to Robust regression with sImple Prior) algorithm, which improves the breakdown point when facing adaptive adversarial attacks. Then, to improve the robustness and reduce the estimation error caused by the inclusion of priors, we use the idea of Bayesian reweighting to construct the more robust BRHT (robust Bayesian Reweighting regression via Hard Thresholding) algorithm. We prove the theoretical convergence of the proposed algorithms under mild conditions, and extensive experiments show that under different types of dataset attacks, our algorithms outperform other benchmark ones. Finally, we apply our methods to a data-recovery problem in a real-world application involving a space solar array, demonstrating their good applicability.
Partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely used for description of physical and engineering phenomena. Some key parameters involved in PDEs, which represents certain physical properties with important scientific interpretations, are difficult or even impossible to be measured directly. Estimation of these parameters from noisy and sparse experimental data of related physical quantities is an important task. Many methods for PDE parameter inference involve a large number of evaluations of numerical solution of PDE through algorithms such as finite element method, which can be time-consuming especially for nonlinear PDEs. In this paper, we propose a novel method for estimating unknown parameters in PDEs, called PDE-Informed Gaussian Process Inference (PIGPI). Through modeling the PDE solution as a Gaussian process (GP), we derive the manifold constraints induced by the (linear) PDE structure such that under the constraints, the GP satisfies the PDE. For nonlinear PDEs, we propose an augmentation method that transfers the nonlinear PDE into an equivalent PDE system linear in all derivatives that our PIGPI can handle. PIGPI can be applied to multi-dimensional PDE systems and PDE systems with unobserved components. The method completely bypasses the numerical solver for PDE, thus achieving drastic savings in computation time, especially for nonlinear PDEs. Moreover, the PIGPI method can give the uncertainty quantification for both the unknown parameters and the PDE solution. The proposed method is demonstrated by several application examples from different areas.