We propose WorldSense, a benchmark designed to assess the extent to which LLMs are consistently able to sustain tacit world models, by testing how they draw simple inferences from descriptions of simple arrangements of entities. Worldsense is a synthetic benchmark with three problem types, each with their own trivial control, which explicitly avoids bias by decorrelating the abstract structure of problems from the vocabulary and expressions, and by decorrelating all problem subparts with the correct response. We run our benchmark on three state-of-the-art chat-LLMs (GPT3.5, GPT4 and Llama2-chat) and show that these models make errors even with as few as three objects. Furthermore, they have quite heavy response biases, preferring certain responses irrespective of the question. Errors persist even with chain-of-thought prompting and in-context learning. Lastly, we show that while finetuning on similar problems does result in substantial improvements -- within- and out-of-distribution -- the finetuned models do not generalise beyond a constraint problem space.
In this work, we develop and release Llama 2, a collection of pretrained and fine-tuned large language models (LLMs) ranging in scale from 7 billion to 70 billion parameters. Our fine-tuned LLMs, called Llama 2-Chat, are optimized for dialogue use cases. Our models outperform open-source chat models on most benchmarks we tested, and based on our human evaluations for helpfulness and safety, may be a suitable substitute for closed-source models. We provide a detailed description of our approach to fine-tuning and safety improvements of Llama 2-Chat in order to enable the community to build on our work and contribute to the responsible development of LLMs.
We introduce LLaMA, a collection of foundation language models ranging from 7B to 65B parameters. We train our models on trillions of tokens, and show that it is possible to train state-of-the-art models using publicly available datasets exclusively, without resorting to proprietary and inaccessible datasets. In particular, LLaMA-13B outperforms GPT-3 (175B) on most benchmarks, and LLaMA-65B is competitive with the best models, Chinchilla-70B and PaLM-540B. We release all our models to the research community.
We propose an online training procedure for a transformer-based automated theorem prover. Our approach leverages a new search algorithm, HyperTree Proof Search (HTPS), inspired by the recent success of AlphaZero. Our model learns from previous proof searches through online training, allowing it to generalize to domains far from the training distribution. We report detailed ablations of our pipeline's main components by studying performance on three environments of increasing complexity. In particular, we show that with HTPS alone, a model trained on annotated proofs manages to prove 65.4% of a held-out set of Metamath theorems, significantly outperforming the previous state of the art of 56.5% by GPT-f. Online training on these unproved theorems increases accuracy to 82.6%. With a similar computational budget, we improve the state of the art on the Lean-based miniF2F-curriculum dataset from 31% to 42% proving accuracy.
Since DeepMind's AlphaZero, Zero learning quickly became the state-of-the-art method for many board games. It can be improved using a fully convolutional structure (no fully connected layer). Using such an architecture plus global pooling, we can create bots independent of the board size. The training can be made more robust by keeping track of the best checkpoints during the training and by training against them. Using these features, we release Polygames, our framework for Zero learning, with its library of games and its checkpoints. We won against strong humans at the game of Hex in 19x19, which was often said to be untractable for zero learning; and in Havannah. We also won several first places at the TAAI competitions.