Diffusion models have recently been increasingly applied to temporal data such as video, fluid mechanics simulations, or climate data. These methods generally treat subsequent frames equally regarding the amount of noise in the diffusion process. This paper explores Rolling Diffusion: a new approach that uses a sliding window denoising process. It ensures that the diffusion process progressively corrupts through time by assigning more noise to frames that appear later in a sequence, reflecting greater uncertainty about the future as the generation process unfolds. Empirically, we show that when the temporal dynamics are complex, Rolling Diffusion is superior to standard diffusion. In particular, this result is demonstrated in a video prediction task using the Kinetics-600 video dataset and in a chaotic fluid dynamics forecasting experiment.
Recent progress in 3D scene understanding enables scalable learning of representations across large datasets of diverse scenes. As a consequence, generalization to unseen scenes and objects, rendering novel views from just a single or a handful of input images, and controllable scene generation that supports editing, is now possible. However, training jointly on a large number of scenes typically compromises rendering quality when compared to single-scene optimized models such as NeRFs. In this paper, we leverage recent progress in diffusion models to equip 3D scene representation learning models with the ability to render high-fidelity novel views, while retaining benefits such as object-level scene editing to a large degree. In particular, we propose DORSal, which adapts a video diffusion architecture for 3D scene generation conditioned on object-centric slot-based representations of scenes. On both complex synthetic multi-object scenes and on the real-world large-scale Street View dataset, we show that DORSal enables scalable neural rendering of 3D scenes with object-level editing and improves upon existing approaches.
Despite the tremendous success of diffusion generative models in text-to-image generation, replicating this success in the domain of image compression has proven difficult. In this paper, we demonstrate that diffusion can significantly improve perceptual quality at a given bit-rate, outperforming state-of-the-art approaches PO-ELIC and HiFiC as measured by FID score. This is achieved using a simple but theoretically motivated two-stage approach combining an autoencoder targeting MSE followed by a further score-based decoder. However, as we will show, implementation details matter and the optimal design decisions can differ greatly from typical text-to-image models.
Currently, applying diffusion models in pixel space of high resolution images is difficult. Instead, existing approaches focus on diffusion in lower dimensional spaces (latent diffusion), or have multiple super-resolution levels of generation referred to as cascades. The downside is that these approaches add additional complexity to the diffusion framework. This paper aims to improve denoising diffusion for high resolution images while keeping the model as simple as possible. The paper is centered around the research question: How can one train a standard denoising diffusion models on high resolution images, and still obtain performance comparable to these alternate approaches? The four main findings are: 1) the noise schedule should be adjusted for high resolution images, 2) It is sufficient to scale only a particular part of the architecture, 3) dropout should be added at specific locations in the architecture, and 4) downsampling is an effective strategy to avoid high resolution feature maps. Combining these simple yet effective techniques, we achieve state-of-the-art on image generation among diffusion models without sampling modifiers on ImageNet.
Recently, Rissanen et al., (2022) have presented a new type of diffusion process for generative modeling based on heat dissipation, or blurring, as an alternative to isotropic Gaussian diffusion. Here, we show that blurring can equivalently be defined through a Gaussian diffusion process with non-isotropic noise. In making this connection, we bridge the gap between inverse heat dissipation and denoising diffusion, and we shed light on the inductive bias that results from this modeling choice. Finally, we propose a generalized class of diffusion models that offers the best of both standard Gaussian denoising diffusion and inverse heat dissipation, which we call Blurring Diffusion Models.
This work introduces a diffusion model for molecule generation in 3D that is equivariant to Euclidean transformations. Our E(3) Equivariant Diffusion Model (EDM) learns to denoise a diffusion process with an equivariant network that jointly operates on both continuous (atom coordinates) and categorical features (atom types). In addition, we provide a probabilistic analysis which admits likelihood computation of molecules using our model. Experimentally, the proposed method significantly outperforms previous 3D molecular generative methods regarding the quality of generated samples and efficiency at training time.
We introduce Autoregressive Diffusion Models (ARDMs), a model class encompassing and generalizing order-agnostic autoregressive models (Uria et al., 2014) and absorbing discrete diffusion (Austin et al., 2021), which we show are special cases of ARDMs under mild assumptions. ARDMs are simple to implement and easy to train. Unlike standard ARMs, they do not require causal masking of model representations, and can be trained using an efficient objective similar to modern probabilistic diffusion models that scales favourably to highly-dimensional data. At test time, ARDMs support parallel generation which can be adapted to fit any given generation budget. We find that ARDMs require significantly fewer steps than discrete diffusion models to attain the same performance. Finally, we apply ARDMs to lossless compression, and show that they are uniquely suited to this task. Contrary to existing approaches based on bits-back coding, ARDMs obtain compelling results not only on complete datasets, but also on compressing single data points. Moreover, this can be done using a modest number of network calls for (de)compression due to the model's adaptable parallel generation.
Discrete flow-based models are a recently proposed class of generative models that learn invertible transformations for discrete random variables. Since they do not require data dequantization and maximize an exact likelihood objective, they can be used in a straight-forward manner for lossless compression. In this paper, we introduce a new discrete flow-based model for categorical random variables: Discrete Denoising Flows (DDFs). In contrast with other discrete flow-based models, our model can be locally trained without introducing gradient bias. We show that DDFs outperform Discrete Flows on modeling a toy example, binary MNIST and Cityscapes segmentation maps, measured in log-likelihood.
* Accepted to the Third workshop on Invertible Neural Networks,
Normalizing Flows, and Explicit Likelihood Models (ICML 2021)
This paper introduces a generative model equivariant to Euclidean symmetries: E(n) Equivariant Normalizing Flows (E-NFs). To construct E-NFs, we take the discriminative E(n) graph neural networks and integrate them as a differential equation to obtain an invertible equivariant function: a continuous-time normalizing flow. We demonstrate that E-NFs considerably outperform baselines and existing methods from the literature on particle systems such as DW4 and LJ13, and on molecules from QM9 in terms of log-likelihood. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first flow that jointly generates molecule features and positions in 3D.
This paper introduces a generative model equivariant to Euclidean symmetries: E(n) Equivariant Normalizing Flows (E-NFs). To construct E-NFs, we take the discriminative E(n) graph neural networks and integrate them as a differential equation to obtain an invertible equivariant function: a continuous-time normalizing flow. We demonstrate that E-NFs considerably outperform baselines and existing methods from the literature on particle systems such as DW4 and LJ13, and on molecules from QM9 in terms of log-likelihood. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first likelihood-based deep generative model that generates molecules in 3D.