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Tomoyoshi Kimura, Jinyang Li, Tianshi Wang, Denizhan Kara, Yizhuo Chen, Yigong Hu, Ruijie Wang, Maggie Wigness, Shengzhong Liu, Mani Srivastava, Suhas Diggavi, Tarek Abdelzaher

This paper demonstrates the potential of vibration-based Foundation Models (FMs), pre-trained with unlabeled sensing data, to improve the robustness of run-time inference in (a class of) IoT applications. A case study is presented featuring a vehicle classification application using acoustic and seismic sensing. The work is motivated by the success of foundation models in the areas of natural language processing and computer vision, leading to generalizations of the FM concept to other domains as well, where significant amounts of unlabeled data exist that can be used for self-supervised pre-training. One such domain is IoT applications. Foundation models for selected sensing modalities in the IoT domain can be pre-trained in an environment-agnostic fashion using available unlabeled sensor data and then fine-tuned to the deployment at hand using a small amount of labeled data. The paper shows that the pre-training/fine-tuning approach improves the robustness of downstream inference and facilitates adaptation to different environmental conditions. More specifically, we present a case study in a real-world setting to evaluate a simple (vibration-based) FM-like model, called FOCAL, demonstrating its superior robustness and adaptation, compared to conventional supervised deep neural networks (DNNs). We also demonstrate its superior convergence over supervised solutions. Our findings highlight the advantages of vibration-based FMs (and FM-inspired selfsupervised models in general) in terms of inference robustness, runtime efficiency, and model adaptation (via fine-tuning) in resource-limited IoT settings.

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Kaan Ozkara, Bruce Huang, Ruida Zhou, Suhas Diggavi

Statistical heterogeneity of clients' local data is an important characteristic in federated learning, motivating personalized algorithms tailored to the local data statistics. Though there has been a plethora of algorithms proposed for personalized supervised learning, discovering the structure of local data through personalized unsupervised learning is less explored. We initiate a systematic study of such personalized unsupervised learning by developing algorithms based on optimization criteria inspired by a hierarchical Bayesian statistical framework. We develop adaptive algorithms that discover the balance between using limited local data and collaborative information. We do this in the context of two unsupervised learning tasks: personalized dimensionality reduction and personalized diffusion models. We develop convergence analyses for our adaptive algorithms which illustrate the dependence on problem parameters (e.g., heterogeneity, local sample size). We also develop a theoretical framework for personalized diffusion models, which shows the benefits of collaboration even under heterogeneity. We finally evaluate our proposed algorithms using synthetic and real data, demonstrating the effective sample amplification for personalized tasks, induced through collaboration, despite data heterogeneity.

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Shengzhong Liu, Tomoyoshi Kimura, Dongxin Liu, Ruijie Wang, Jinyang Li, Suhas Diggavi, Mani Srivastava, Tarek Abdelzaher

This paper proposes a novel contrastive learning framework, called FOCAL, for extracting comprehensive features from multimodal time-series sensing signals through self-supervised training. Existing multimodal contrastive frameworks mostly rely on the shared information between sensory modalities, but do not explicitly consider the exclusive modality information that could be critical to understanding the underlying sensing physics. Besides, contrastive frameworks for time series have not handled the temporal information locality appropriately. FOCAL solves these challenges by making the following contributions: First, given multimodal time series, it encodes each modality into a factorized latent space consisting of shared features and private features that are orthogonal to each other. The shared space emphasizes feature patterns consistent across sensory modalities through a modal-matching objective. In contrast, the private space extracts modality-exclusive information through a transformation-invariant objective. Second, we propose a temporal structural constraint for modality features, such that the average distance between temporally neighboring samples is no larger than that of temporally distant samples. Extensive evaluations are performed on four multimodal sensing datasets with two backbone encoders and two classifiers to demonstrate the superiority of FOCAL. It consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines in downstream tasks with a clear margin, under different ratios of available labels. The code and self-collected dataset are available at https://github.com/tomoyoshki/focal.

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Navjot Singh, Suhas Diggavi

In this paper, we consider the problem of learning a linear regression model on a data domain of interest (target) given few samples. To aid learning, we are provided with a set of pre-trained regression models that are trained on potentially different data domains (sources). Assuming a representation structure for the data generating linear models at the sources and the target domains, we propose a representation transfer based learning method for constructing the target model. The proposed scheme is comprised of two phases: (i) utilizing the different source representations to construct a representation that is adapted to the target data, and (ii) using the obtained model as an initialization to a fine-tuning procedure that re-trains the entire (over-parameterized) regression model on the target data. For each phase of the training method, we provide excess risk bounds for the learned model compared to the true data generating target model. The derived bounds show a gain in sample complexity for our proposed method compared to the baseline method of not leveraging source representations when achieving the same excess risk, therefore, theoretically demonstrating the effectiveness of transfer learning for linear regression.

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Antonious M. Girgis, Suhas Diggavi

We study differentially private distributed optimization under communication constraints. A server using SGD for optimization aggregates the client-side local gradients for model updates using distributed mean estimation (DME). We develop a communication-efficient private DME, using the recently developed multi-message shuffled (MMS) privacy framework. We analyze our proposed DME scheme to show that it achieves the order-optimal privacy-communication-performance tradeoff resolving an open question in [1], whether the shuffled models can improve the tradeoff obtained in Secure Aggregation. This also resolves an open question on the optimal trade-off for private vector sum in the MMS model. We achieve it through a novel privacy mechanism that non-uniformly allocates privacy at different resolutions of the local gradient vectors. These results are directly applied to give guarantees on private distributed learning algorithms using this for private gradient aggregation iteratively. We also numerically evaluate the private DME algorithms.

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Osama A. Hanna, Antonious M. Girgis, Christina Fragouli, Suhas Diggavi

In this paper, we propose differentially private algorithms for the problem of stochastic linear bandits in the central, local and shuffled models. In the central model, we achieve almost the same regret as the optimal non-private algorithms, which means we get privacy for free. In particular, we achieve a regret of $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{T}+\frac{1}{\epsilon})$ matching the known lower bound for private linear bandits, while the best previously known algorithm achieves $\tilde{O}(\frac{1}{\epsilon}\sqrt{T})$. In the local case, we achieve a regret of $\tilde{O}(\frac{1}{\epsilon}{\sqrt{T}})$ which matches the non-private regret for constant $\epsilon$, but suffers a regret penalty when $\epsilon$ is small. In the shuffled model, we also achieve regret of $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{T}+\frac{1}{\epsilon})$ %for small $\epsilon$ as in the central case, while the best previously known algorithm suffers a regret of $\tilde{O}(\frac{1}{\epsilon}{T^{3/5}})$. Our numerical evaluation validates our theoretical results.

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Kaan Ozkara, Antonious M. Girgis, Deepesh Data, Suhas Diggavi

A distinguishing characteristic of federated learning is that the (local) client data could have statistical heterogeneity. This heterogeneity has motivated the design of personalized learning, where individual (personalized) models are trained, through collaboration. There have been various personalization methods proposed in literature, with seemingly very different forms and methods ranging from use of a single global model for local regularization and model interpolation, to use of multiple global models for personalized clustering, etc. In this work, we begin with a generative framework that could potentially unify several different algorithms as well as suggest new algorithms. We apply our generative framework to personalized estimation, and connect it to the classical empirical Bayes' methodology. We develop private personalized estimation under this framework. We then use our generative framework for learning, which unifies several known personalized FL algorithms and also suggests new ones; we propose and study a new algorithm AdaPeD based on a Knowledge Distillation, which numerically outperforms several known algorithms. We also develop privacy for personalized learning methods with guarantees for user-level privacy and composition. We numerically evaluate the performance as well as the privacy for both the estimation and learning problems, demonstrating the advantages of our proposed methods.

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Mohamad Rida Rammal, Alessandro Achille, Aditya Golatkar, Suhas Diggavi, Stefano Soatto

We derive information theoretic generalization bounds for supervised learning algorithms based on a new measure of leave-one-out conditional mutual information (loo-CMI). Contrary to other CMI bounds, which are black-box bounds that do not exploit the structure of the problem and may be hard to evaluate in practice, our loo-CMI bounds can be computed easily and can be interpreted in connection to other notions such as classical leave-one-out cross-validation, stability of the optimization algorithm, and the geometry of the loss-landscape. It applies both to the output of training algorithms as well as their predictions. We empirically validate the quality of the bound by evaluating its predicted generalization gap in scenarios for deep learning. In particular, our bounds are non-vacuous on large-scale image-classification tasks.

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Navjot Singh, Xuanyu Cao, Suhas Diggavi, Tamer Basar

We consider a multi-agent network where each node has a stochastic (local) cost function that depends on the decision variable of that node and a random variable, and further the decision variables of neighboring nodes are pairwise constrained. There is an aggregate objective function for the network, composed additively of the expected values of the local cost functions at the nodes, and the overall goal of the network is to obtain the minimizing solution to this aggregate objective function subject to all the pairwise constraints. This is to be achieved at the node level using decentralized information and local computation, with exchanges of only compressed information allowed by neighboring nodes. The paper develops algorithms and obtains performance bounds for two different models of local information availability at the nodes: (i) sample feedback, where each node has direct access to samples of the local random variable to evaluate its local cost, and (ii) bandit feedback, where samples of the random variables are not available, but only the values of the local cost functions at two random points close to the decision are available to each node. For both models, with compressed communication between neighbors, we have developed decentralized saddle-point algorithms that deliver performances no different (in order sense) from those without communication compression; specifically, we show that deviation from the global minimum value and violations of the constraints are upper-bounded by $\mathcal{O}(T^{-\frac{1}{2}})$ and $\mathcal{O}(T^{-\frac{1}{4}})$, respectively, where $T$ is the number of iterations. Numerical examples provided in the paper corroborate these bounds and demonstrate the communication efficiency of the proposed method.

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Mohamad Rida Rammal, Suhas Diggavi, Ashutosh Sabharwal

We consider the problem of estimating the orientation of a 3D object with the assistance of configurable backscatter tags. We explore the idea of designing tag response codes to improve the accuracy of orientation estimation. To minimize the difference between the true and estimated orientation, we propose two code design criteria. We also derive a lower bound on the worst-case error using Le Cam's method and provide simulation results for multiple scenarios including line-of-sight only and multipath, comparing the theoretical bounds to those achieved by the designs.

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