The remarkable progress in 3D face reconstruction has resulted in high-detail and photorealistic facial representations. Recently, Diffusion Models have revolutionized the capabilities of generative methods by achieving far better performance than GANs. In this work, we present FitDiff, a diffusion-based 3D facial avatar generative model. This model accurately generates relightable facial avatars, utilizing an identity embedding extracted from an "in-the-wild" 2D facial image. Our multi-modal diffusion model concurrently outputs facial reflectance maps (diffuse and specular albedo and normals) and shapes, showcasing great generalization capabilities. It is solely trained on an annotated subset of a public facial dataset, paired with 3D reconstructions. We revisit the typical 3D facial fitting approach by guiding a reverse diffusion process using perceptual and face recognition losses. Being the first LDM conditioned on face recognition embeddings, FitDiff reconstructs relightable human avatars, that can be used as-is in common rendering engines, starting only from an unconstrained facial image, and achieving state-of-the-art performance.
In this paper, we introduce FitMe, a facial reflectance model and a differentiable rendering optimization pipeline, that can be used to acquire high-fidelity renderable human avatars from single or multiple images. The model consists of a multi-modal style-based generator, that captures facial appearance in terms of diffuse and specular reflectance, and a PCA-based shape model. We employ a fast differentiable rendering process that can be used in an optimization pipeline, while also achieving photorealistic facial shading. Our optimization process accurately captures both the facial reflectance and shape in high-detail, by exploiting the expressivity of the style-based latent representation and of our shape model. FitMe achieves state-of-the-art reflectance acquisition and identity preservation on single "in-the-wild" facial images, while it produces impressive scan-like results, when given multiple unconstrained facial images pertaining to the same identity. In contrast with recent implicit avatar reconstructions, FitMe requires only one minute and produces relightable mesh and texture-based avatars, that can be used by end-user applications.
Following the remarkable success of diffusion models on image generation, recent works have also demonstrated their impressive ability to address a number of inverse problems in an unsupervised way, by properly constraining the sampling process based on a conditioning input. Motivated by this, in this paper, we present the first approach to use diffusion models as a prior for highly accurate 3D facial BRDF reconstruction from a single image. We start by leveraging a high-quality UV dataset of facial reflectance (diffuse and specular albedo and normals), which we render under varying illumination settings to simulate natural RGB textures and, then, train an unconditional diffusion model on concatenated pairs of rendered textures and reflectance components. At test time, we fit a 3D morphable model to the given image and unwrap the face in a partial UV texture. By sampling from the diffusion model, while retaining the observed texture part intact, the model inpaints not only the self-occluded areas but also the unknown reflectance components, in a single sequence of denoising steps. In contrast to existing methods, we directly acquire the observed texture from the input image, thus, resulting in more faithful and consistent reflectance estimation. Through a series of qualitative and quantitative comparisons, we demonstrate superior performance in both texture completion as well as reflectance reconstruction tasks.
Over the last years, many face analysis tasks have accomplished astounding performance, with applications including face generation and 3D face reconstruction from a single "in-the-wild" image. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, there is no method which can produce render-ready high-resolution 3D faces from "in-the-wild" images and this can be attributed to the: (a) scarcity of available data for training, and (b) lack of robust methodologies that can successfully be applied on very high-resolution data. In this work, we introduce the first method that is able to reconstruct photorealistic render-ready 3D facial geometry and BRDF from a single "in-the-wild" image. We capture a large dataset of facial shape and reflectance, which we have made public. We define a fast facial photorealistic differentiable rendering methodology with accurate facial skin diffuse and specular reflection, self-occlusion and subsurface scattering approximation. With this, we train a network that disentangles the facial diffuse and specular BRDF components from a shape and texture with baked illumination, reconstructed with a state-of-the-art 3DMM fitting method. Our method outperforms the existing arts by a significant margin and reconstructs high-resolution 3D faces from a single low-resolution image, that can be rendered in various applications, and bridge the uncanny valley.
* Project and Dataset page: ( https://github.com/lattas/AvatarMe ). 20
pages, including supplemental materials. Accepted for publishing at IEEE
Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence on 13 November
2021. Copyright 2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted
3D face reconstruction from a single image is a task that has garnered increased interest in the Computer Vision community, especially due to its broad use in a number of applications such as realistic 3D avatar creation, pose invariant face recognition and face hallucination. Since the introduction of the 3D Morphable Model in the late 90's, we witnessed an explosion of research aiming at particularly tackling this task. Nevertheless, despite the increasing level of detail in the 3D face reconstructions from single images mainly attributed to deep learning advances, finer and highly deformable components of the face such as the tongue are still absent from all 3D face models in the literature, although being very important for the realness of the 3D avatar representations. In this work we present the first, to the best of our knowledge, end-to-end trainable pipeline that accurately reconstructs the 3D face together with the tongue. Moreover, we make this pipeline robust in "in-the-wild" images by introducing a novel GAN method tailored for 3D tongue surface generation. Finally, we make publicly available to the community the first diverse tongue dataset, consisting of 1,800 raw scans of 700 individuals varying in gender, age, and ethnicity backgrounds. As we demonstrate in an extensive series of quantitative as well as qualitative experiments, our model proves to be robust and realistically captures the 3D tongue structure, even in adverse "in-the-wild" conditions.
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) are currently the method of choice both for generative, as well as for discriminative learning in computer vision and machine learning. The success of DCNNs can be attributed to the careful selection of their building blocks (e.g., residual blocks, rectifiers, sophisticated normalization schemes, to mention but a few). In this paper, we propose $\Pi$-Nets, a new class of DCNNs. $\Pi$-Nets are polynomial neural networks, i.e., the output is a high-order polynomial of the input. The unknown parameters, which are naturally represented by high-order tensors, are estimated through a collective tensor factorization with factors sharing. We introduce three tensor decompositions that significantly reduce the number of parameters and show how they can be efficiently implemented by hierarchical neural networks. We empirically demonstrate that $\Pi$-Nets are very expressive and they even produce good results without the use of non-linear activation functions in a large battery of tasks and signals, i.e., images, graphs, and audio. When used in conjunction with activation functions, $\Pi$-Nets produce state-of-the-art results in three challenging tasks, i.e. image generation, face verification and 3D mesh representation learning.
* Under review in T-PAMI. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap
Over the last years, with the advent of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), many face analysis tasks have accomplished astounding performance, with applications including, but not limited to, face generation and 3D face reconstruction from a single "in-the-wild" image. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, there is no method which can produce high-resolution photorealistic 3D faces from "in-the-wild" images and this can be attributed to the: (a) scarcity of available data for training, and (b) lack of robust methodologies that can successfully be applied on very high-resolution data. In this paper, we introduce AvatarMe, the first method that is able to reconstruct photorealistic 3D faces from a single "in-the-wild" image with an increasing level of detail. To achieve this, we capture a large dataset of facial shape and reflectance and build on a state-of-the-art 3D texture and shape reconstruction method and successively refine its results, while generating the per-pixel diffuse and specular components that are required for realistic rendering. As we demonstrate in a series of qualitative and quantitative experiments, AvatarMe outperforms the existing arts by a significant margin and reconstructs authentic, 4K by 6K-resolution 3D faces from a single low-resolution image that, for the first time, bridges the uncanny valley.
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) is currently the method of choice both for generative, as well as for discriminative learning in computer vision and machine learning. The success of DCNNs can be attributed to the careful selection of their building blocks (e.g., residual blocks, rectifiers, sophisticated normalization schemes, to mention but a few). In this paper, we propose $\Pi$-Nets, a new class of DCNNs. $\Pi$-Nets are polynomial neural networks, i.e., the output is a high-order polynomial of the input. $\Pi$-Nets can be implemented using special kind of skip connections and their parameters can be represented via high-order tensors. We empirically demonstrate that $\Pi$-Nets have better representation power than standard DCNNs and they even produce good results without the use of non-linear activation functions in a large battery of tasks and signals, i.e., images, graphs, and audio. When used in conjunction with activation functions, $\Pi$-Nets produce state-of-the-art results in challenging tasks, such as image generation. Lastly, our framework elucidates why recent generative models, such as StyleGAN, improve upon their predecessors, e.g., ProGAN.
Three-dimensional Morphable Models (3DMMs) are powerful statistical tools for representing the 3D shapes and textures of an object class. Here we present the most complete 3DMM of the human head to date that includes face, cranium, ears, eyes, teeth and tongue. To achieve this, we propose two methods for combining existing 3DMMs of different overlapping head parts: i. use a regressor to complete missing parts of one model using the other, ii. use the Gaussian Process framework to blend covariance matrices from multiple models. Thus we build a new combined face-and-head shape model that blends the variability and facial detail of an existing face model (the LSFM) with the full head modelling capability of an existing head model (the LYHM). Then we construct and fuse a highly-detailed ear model to extend the variation of the ear shape. Eye and eye region models are incorporated into the head model, along with basic models of the teeth, tongue and inner mouth cavity. The new model achieves state-of-the-art performance. We use our model to reconstruct full head representations from single, unconstrained images allowing us to parameterize craniofacial shape and texture, along with the ear shape, eye gaze and eye color.
* 17 pages, 15 figures, submitted to Transactions on Pattern Analysis
and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI) on the 9th of October as an extension paper
of the original oral CVPR parer : arXiv:1903.03785