Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Authors:Matthew Fahrbach, Srikumar Ramalingam, Morteza Zadimoghaddam, Sara Ahmadian, Gui Citovsky, Giulia DeSalvo

Abstract:We propose a novel subset selection task called min-distance diverse data summarization ($\textsf{MDDS}$), which has a wide variety of applications in machine learning, e.g., data sampling and feature selection. Given a set of points in a metric space, the goal is to maximize an objective that combines the total utility of the points and a diversity term that captures the minimum distance between any pair of selected points, subject to the constraint $|S| \le k$. For example, the points may correspond to training examples in a data sampling problem, e.g., learned embeddings of images extracted from a deep neural network. This work presents the $\texttt{GIST}$ algorithm, which achieves a $\frac{2}{3}$-approximation guarantee for $\textsf{MDDS}$ by approximating a series of maximum independent set problems with a bicriteria greedy algorithm. We also prove a complementary $(\frac{2}{3}+\varepsilon)$-hardness of approximation, for any $\varepsilon > 0$. Finally, we provide an empirical study that demonstrates $\texttt{GIST}$ outperforms existing methods for $\textsf{MDDS}$ on synthetic data, and also for a real-world image classification experiment the studies single-shot subset selection for ImageNet.

Via

Abstract:Many learning problems hinge on the fundamental problem of subset selection, i.e., identifying a subset of important and representative points. For example, selecting the most significant samples in ML training cannot only reduce training costs but also enhance model quality. Submodularity, a discrete analogue of convexity, is commonly used for solving subset selection problems. However, existing algorithms for optimizing submodular functions are sequential, and the prior distributed methods require at least one central machine to fit the target subset. In this paper, we relax the requirement of having a central machine for the target subset by proposing a novel distributed bounding algorithm with provable approximation guarantees. The algorithm iteratively bounds the minimum and maximum utility values to select high quality points and discard the unimportant ones. When bounding does not find the complete subset, we use a multi-round, partition-based distributed greedy algorithm to identify the remaining subset. We show that these algorithms find high quality subsets on CIFAR-100 and ImageNet with marginal or no loss in quality compared to centralized methods, and scale to a dataset with 13 billion points.

Via

Abstract:In this work, we introduce a novel paradigm called Simulated Overparametrization (SOP). SOP merges the computational efficiency of compact models with the advanced learning proficiencies of overparameterized models. SOP proposes a unique approach to model training and inference, where a model with a significantly larger number of parameters is trained in such a way that a smaller, efficient subset of these parameters is used for the actual computation during inference. Building upon this framework, we present a novel, architecture agnostic algorithm called "majority kernels", which seamlessly integrates with predominant architectures, including Transformer models. Majority kernels enables the simulated training of overparameterized models, resulting in performance gains across architectures and tasks. Furthermore, our approach adds minimal overhead to the cost incurred (wall clock time) at training time. The proposed approach shows strong performance on a wide variety of datasets and models, even outperforming strong baselines such as combinatorial optimization methods based on submodular optimization.

Via

Abstract:The success of deep learning hinges on enormous data and large models, which require labor-intensive annotations and heavy computation costs. Subset selection is a fundamental problem that can play a key role in identifying smaller portions of the training data, which can then be used to produce similar models as the ones trained with full data. Two prior methods are shown to achieve impressive results: (1) margin sampling that focuses on selecting points with high uncertainty, and (2) core-sets or clustering methods such as k-center for informative and diverse subsets. We are not aware of any work that combines these methods in a principled manner. To this end, we develop a novel and efficient factor 3-approximation algorithm to compute subsets based on the weighted sum of both k-center and uncertainty sampling objective functions. To handle large datasets, we show a parallel algorithm to run on multiple machines with approximation guarantees. The proposed algorithm achieves similar or better performance compared to other strong baselines on vision datasets such as CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet.

Via

Authors:Sadeep Jayasumana, Daniel Glasner, Srikumar Ramalingam, Andreas Veit, Ayan Chakrabarti, Sanjiv Kumar

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Modern text-to-image generation models produce high-quality images that are both photorealistic and faithful to the text prompts. However, this quality comes at significant computational cost: nearly all of these models are iterative and require running inference multiple times with large models. This iterative process is needed to ensure that different regions of the image are not only aligned with the text prompt, but also compatible with each other. In this work, we propose a light-weight approach to achieving this compatibility between different regions of an image, using a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. This method is shown to work in conjunction with the recently proposed Muse model. The MRF encodes the compatibility among image tokens at different spatial locations and enables us to significantly reduce the required number of Muse prediction steps. Inference with the MRF is significantly cheaper, and its parameters can be quickly learned through back-propagation by modeling MRF inference as a differentiable neural-network layer. Our full model, SPEGTI, uses this proposed MRF model to speed up Muse by 1.5X with no loss in output image quality.

Via

Authors:Gui Citovsky, Giulia DeSalvo, Sanjiv Kumar, Srikumar Ramalingam, Afshin Rostamizadeh, Yunjuan Wang

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We present a subset selection algorithm designed to work with arbitrary model families in a practical batch setting. In such a setting, an algorithm can sample examples one at a time but, in order to limit overhead costs, is only able to update its state (i.e. further train model weights) once a large enough batch of examples is selected. Our algorithm, IWeS, selects examples by importance sampling where the sampling probability assigned to each example is based on the entropy of models trained on previously selected batches. IWeS admits significant performance improvement compared to other subset selection algorithms for seven publicly available datasets. Additionally, it is competitive in an active learning setting, where the label information is not available at selection time. We also provide an initial theoretical analysis to support our importance weighting approach, proving generalization and sampling rate bounds.

Via

Authors:Arslan Chaudhry, Aditya Krishna Menon, Andreas Veit, Sadeep Jayasumana, Srikumar Ramalingam, Sanjiv Kumar

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Mixup is a regularization technique that artificially produces new samples using convex combinations of original training points. This simple technique has shown strong empirical performance, and has been heavily used as part of semi-supervised learning techniques such as mixmatch~\citep{berthelot2019mixmatch} and interpolation consistent training (ICT)~\citep{verma2019interpolation}. In this paper, we look at Mixup through a \emph{representation learning} lens in a semi-supervised learning setup. In particular, we study the role of Mixup in promoting linearity in the learned network representations. Towards this, we study two questions: (1) how does the Mixup loss that enforces linearity in the \emph{last} network layer propagate the linearity to the \emph{earlier} layers?; and (2) how does the enforcement of stronger Mixup loss on more than two data points affect the convergence of training? We empirically investigate these properties of Mixup on vision datasets such as CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and SVHN. Our results show that supervised Mixup training does not make \emph{all} the network layers linear; in fact the \emph{intermediate layers} become more non-linear during Mixup training compared to a network that is trained \emph{without} Mixup. However, when Mixup is used as an unsupervised loss, we observe that all the network layers become more linear resulting in faster training convergence.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Neural networks tend to achieve better accuracy with training if they are larger -- even if the resulting models are overparameterized. Nevertheless, carefully removing such excess parameters before, during, or after training may also produce models with similar or even improved accuracy. In many cases, that can be curiously achieved by heuristics as simple as removing a percentage of the weights with the smallest absolute value -- even though magnitude is not a perfect proxy for weight relevance. With the premise that obtaining significantly better performance from pruning depends on accounting for the combined effect of removing multiple weights, we revisit one of the classic approaches for impact-based pruning: the Optimal Brain Surgeon(OBS). We propose a tractable heuristic for solving the combinatorial extension of OBS, in which we select weights for simultaneous removal, as well as a systematic update of the remaining weights. Our selection method outperforms other methods under high sparsity, and the weight update is advantageous even when combined with the other methods.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Single image pose estimation is a fundamental problem in many vision and robotics tasks, and existing deep learning approaches suffer by not completely modeling and handling: i) uncertainty about the predictions, and ii) symmetric objects with multiple (sometimes infinite) correct poses. To this end, we introduce a method to estimate arbitrary, non-parametric distributions on SO(3). Our key idea is to represent the distributions implicitly, with a neural network that estimates the probability given the input image and a candidate pose. Grid sampling or gradient ascent can be used to find the most likely pose, but it is also possible to evaluate the probability at any pose, enabling reasoning about symmetries and uncertainty. This is the most general way of representing distributions on manifolds, and to showcase the rich expressive power, we introduce a dataset of challenging symmetric and nearly-symmetric objects. We require no supervision on pose uncertainty -- the model trains only with a single pose per example. Nonetheless, our implicit model is highly expressive to handle complex distributions over 3D poses, while still obtaining accurate pose estimation on standard non-ambiguous environments, achieving state-of-the-art performance on Pascal3D+ and ModelNet10-SO(3) benchmarks.

Via

Authors:Seungyeon Kim, Daniel Glasner, Srikumar Ramalingam, Cho-Jui Hsieh, Kishore Papineni, Sanjiv Kumar

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:It is generally believed that robust training of extremely large networks is critical to their success in real-world applications. However, when taken to the extreme, methods that promote robustness can hurt the model's sensitivity to rare or underrepresented patterns. In this paper, we discuss this trade-off between sensitivity and robustness to natural (non-adversarial) perturbations by introducing two notions: contextual feature utility and contextual feature sensitivity. We propose Feature Contrastive Learning (FCL) that encourages a model to be more sensitive to the features that have higher contextual utility. Empirical results demonstrate that models trained with FCL achieve a better balance of robustness and sensitivity, leading to improved generalization in the presence of noise on both vision and NLP datasets.

Via