Aerial-ground person re-identification (Re-ID) presents unique challenges in computer vision, stemming from the distinct differences in viewpoints, poses, and resolutions between high-altitude aerial and ground-based cameras. Existing research predominantly focuses on ground-to-ground matching, with aerial matching less explored due to a dearth of comprehensive datasets. To address this, we introduce AG-ReID.v2, a dataset specifically designed for person Re-ID in mixed aerial and ground scenarios. This dataset comprises 100,502 images of 1,615 unique individuals, each annotated with matching IDs and 15 soft attribute labels. Data were collected from diverse perspectives using a UAV, stationary CCTV, and smart glasses-integrated camera, providing a rich variety of intra-identity variations. Additionally, we have developed an explainable attention network tailored for this dataset. This network features a three-stream architecture that efficiently processes pairwise image distances, emphasizes key top-down features, and adapts to variations in appearance due to altitude differences. Comparative evaluations demonstrate the superiority of our approach over existing baselines. We plan to release the dataset and algorithm source code publicly, aiming to advance research in this specialized field of computer vision. For access, please visit https://github.com/huynguyen792/AG-ReID.v2.
Recent progress in semantic scene understanding has primarily been enabled by the availability of semantically annotated bi-modal (camera and lidar) datasets in urban environments. However, such annotated datasets are also needed for natural, unstructured environments to enable semantic perception for applications, including conservation, search and rescue, environment monitoring, and agricultural automation. Therefore, we introduce WildScenes, a bi-modal benchmark dataset consisting of multiple large-scale traversals in natural environments, including semantic annotations in high-resolution 2D images and dense 3D lidar point clouds, and accurate 6-DoF pose information. The data is (1) trajectory-centric with accurate localization and globally aligned point clouds, (2) calibrated and synchronized to support bi-modal inference, and (3) containing different natural environments over 6 months to support research on domain adaptation. Our 3D semantic labels are obtained via an efficient automated process that transfers the human-annotated 2D labels from multiple views into 3D point clouds, thus circumventing the need for expensive and time-consuming human annotation in 3D. We introduce benchmarks on 2D and 3D semantic segmentation and evaluate a variety of recent deep-learning techniques to demonstrate the challenges in semantic segmentation in natural environments. We propose train-val-test splits for standard benchmarks as well as domain adaptation benchmarks and utilize an automated split generation technique to ensure the balance of class label distributions. The data, evaluation scripts and pretrained models will be released upon acceptance at https://csiro-robotics.github.io/WildScenes.
* Under review. The first 3 authors contributed equally
Hyperspectral images (HSIs) contain rich spectral and spatial information. Motivated by the success of transformers in the field of natural language processing and computer vision where they have shown the ability to learn long range dependencies within input data, recent research has focused on using transformers for HSIs. However, current state-of-the-art hyperspectral transformers only tokenize the input HSI sample along the spectral dimension, resulting in the under-utilization of spatial information. Moreover, transformers are known to be data-hungry and their performance relies heavily on large-scale pre-training, which is challenging due to limited annotated hyperspectral data. Therefore, the full potential of HSI transformers has not been fully realized. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel factorized spectral-spatial transformer that incorporates factorized self-supervised pre-training procedures, leading to significant improvements in performance. The factorization of the inputs allows the spectral and spatial transformers to better capture the interactions within the hyperspectral data cubes. Inspired by masked image modeling pre-training, we also devise efficient masking strategies for pre-training each of the spectral and spatial transformers. We conduct experiments on three publicly available datasets for HSI classification task and demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance in all three datasets. The code for our model will be made available at https://github.com/csiro-robotics/factoformer.
* Pre-print of article in 2023 IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote
Endoscopy plays a major role in identifying any underlying abnormalities within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. There are multiple GI tract diseases that are life-threatening, such as precancerous lesions and other intestinal cancers. In the usual process, a diagnosis is made by a medical expert which can be prone to human errors and the accuracy of the test is also entirely dependent on the expert's level of experience. Deep learning, specifically Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs) which are designed to perform automatic feature learning without any prior feature engineering, has recently reported great benefits for GI endoscopy image analysis. Previous research has developed models that focus only on improving performance, as such, the majority of introduced models contain complex deep network architectures with a large number of parameters that require longer training times. However, there is a lack of focus on developing lightweight models which can run in low-resource environments, which are typically encountered in medical clinics. We investigate three KD-based learning frameworks, response-based, feature-based, and relation-based mechanisms, and introduce a novel multi-head attention-based feature fusion mechanism to support relation-based learning. Compared to the existing relation-based methods that follow simplistic aggregation techniques of multi-teacher response/feature-based knowledge, we adopt the multi-head attention technique to provide flexibility towards localising and transferring important details from each teacher to better guide the student. We perform extensive evaluations on two widely used public datasets, KVASIR-V2 and Hyper-KVASIR, and our experimental results signify the merits of our proposed relation-based framework in achieving an improved lightweight model (only 51.8k trainable parameters) that can run in a resource-limited environment.
LiDAR place recognition approaches based on deep learning suffer a significant degradation in performance when there is a shift between the distribution of the training and testing datasets, with re-training often required to achieve top performance. However, obtaining accurate ground truth on new environments can be prohibitively expensive, especially in complex or GPS-deprived environments. To address this issue we propose GeoAdapt, which introduces a novel auxiliary classification head to generate pseudo-labels for re-training on unseen environments in a self-supervised manner. GeoAdapt uses geometric consistency as a prior to improve the robustness of our generated pseudo-labels against domain shift, improving the performance and reliability of our Test-Time Adaptation approach. Comprehensive experiments show that GeoAdapt significantly boosts place recognition performance across moderate to severe domain shifts, and is competitive with fully supervised test-time adaptation approaches. Our code will be available at https://github.com/csiro-robotics/GeoAdapt.
The advent of high-resolution multispectral/hyperspectral sensors, LiDAR DSM (Digital Surface Model) information and many others has provided us with an unprecedented wealth of data for Earth Observation. Multimodal AI seeks to exploit those complementary data sources, particularly for complex tasks like semantic segmentation. While specialized architectures have been developed, they are highly complicated via significant effort in model design, and require considerable re-engineering whenever a new modality emerges. Recent trends in general-purpose multimodal networks have shown great potential to achieve state-of-the-art performance across multiple multimodal tasks with one unified architecture. In this work, we investigate the performance of PerceiverIO, one in the general-purpose multimodal family, in the remote sensing semantic segmentation domain. Our experiments reveal that this ostensibly universal network struggles with object scale variation in remote sensing images and fails to detect the presence of cars from a top-down view. To address these issues, even with extreme class imbalance issues, we propose a spatial and volumetric learning component. Specifically, we design a UNet-inspired module that employs 3D convolution to encode vital local information and learn cross-modal features simultaneously, while reducing network computational burden via the cross-attention mechanism of PerceiverIO. The effectiveness of the proposed component is validated through extensive experiments comparing it with other methods such as 2D convolution, and dual local module (\ie the combination of Conv2D 1x1 and Conv2D 3x3 inspired by UNetFormer). The proposed method achieves competitive results with specialized architectures like UNetFormer and SwinUNet, showing its potential to minimize network architecture engineering with a minimal compromise on the performance.
* Accepted to CVPR Workshop on Multimodal Learning for Earth and
Humans exhibit complex motions that vary depending on the task that they are performing, the interactions they engage in, as well as subject-specific preferences. Therefore, forecasting future poses based on the history of the previous motions is a challenging task. This paper presents an innovative auxiliary-memory-powered deep neural network framework for the improved modelling of historical knowledge. Specifically, we disentangle subject-specific, task-specific, and other auxiliary information from the observed pose sequences and utilise these factorised features to query the memory. A novel Multi-Head knowledge retrieval scheme leverages these factorised feature embeddings to perform multiple querying operations over the historical observations captured within the auxiliary memory. Moreover, our proposed dynamic masking strategy makes this feature disentanglement process dynamic. Two novel loss functions are introduced to encourage diversity within the auxiliary memory while ensuring the stability of the memory contents, such that it can locate and store salient information that can aid the long-term prediction of future motion, irrespective of data imbalances or the diversity of the input data distribution. With extensive experiments conducted on two public benchmarks, Human3.6M and CMU-Mocap, we demonstrate that these design choices collectively allow the proposed approach to outperform the current state-of-the-art methods by significant margins: $>$ 17\% on the Human3.6M dataset and $>$ 9\% on the CMU-Mocap dataset.
Modern automated surveillance techniques are heavily reliant on deep learning methods. Despite the superior performance, these learning systems are inherently vulnerable to adversarial attacks - maliciously crafted inputs that are designed to mislead, or trick, models into making incorrect predictions. An adversary can physically change their appearance by wearing adversarial t-shirts, glasses, or hats or by specific behavior, to potentially avoid various forms of detection, tracking and recognition of surveillance systems; and obtain unauthorized access to secure properties and assets. This poses a severe threat to the security and safety of modern surveillance systems. This paper reviews recent attempts and findings in learning and designing physical adversarial attacks for surveillance applications. In particular, we propose a framework to analyze physical adversarial attacks and provide a comprehensive survey of physical adversarial attacks on four key surveillance tasks: detection, identification, tracking, and action recognition under this framework. Furthermore, we review and analyze strategies to defend against the physical adversarial attacks and the methods for evaluating the strengths of the defense. The insights in this paper present an important step in building resilience within surveillance systems to physical adversarial attacks.
Heatmaps are widely used to interpret deep neural networks, particularly for computer vision tasks, and the heatmap-based explainable AI (XAI) techniques are a well-researched topic. However, most studies concentrate on enhancing the quality of the generated heatmap or discovering alternate heatmap generation techniques, and little effort has been devoted to making heatmap-based XAI automatic, interactive, scalable, and accessible. To address this gap, we propose a framework that includes two modules: (1) context modelling and (2) reasoning. We proposed a template-based image captioning approach for context modelling to create text-based contextual information from the heatmap and input data. The reasoning module leverages a large language model to provide explanations in combination with specialised knowledge. Our qualitative experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework and heatmap captioning approach. The code for the proposed template-based heatmap captioning approach will be publicly available.
Person re-ID matches persons across multiple non-overlapping cameras. Despite the increasing deployment of airborne platforms in surveillance, current existing person re-ID benchmarks' focus is on ground-ground matching and very limited efforts on aerial-aerial matching. We propose a new benchmark dataset - AG-ReID, which performs person re-ID matching in a new setting: across aerial and ground cameras. Our dataset contains 21,983 images of 388 identities and 15 soft attributes for each identity. The data was collected by a UAV flying at altitudes between 15 to 45 meters and a ground-based CCTV camera on a university campus. Our dataset presents a novel elevated-viewpoint challenge for person re-ID due to the significant difference in person appearance across these cameras. We propose an explainable algorithm to guide the person re-ID model's training with soft attributes to address this challenge. Experiments demonstrate the efficacy of our method on the aerial-ground person re-ID task. The dataset will be published and the baseline codes will be open-sourced at https://github.com/huynguyen792/AG-ReID to facilitate research in this area.
* The paper will be temporarily withdrawn from arXiv for updates and