We study best-effort strategies (aka plans) in fully observable nondeterministic domains (FOND) for goals expressed in Linear Temporal Logic on Finite Traces (LTLf). The notion of best-effort strategy has been introduced to also deal with the scenario when no agent strategy exists that fulfills the goal against every possible nondeterministic environment reaction. Such strategies fulfill the goal if possible, and do their best to do so otherwise. We present a game-theoretic technique for synthesizing best-effort strategies that exploit the specificity of nondeterministic planning domains. We formally show its correctness and demonstrate its effectiveness experimentally, exhibiting a much greater scalability with respect to a direct best-effort synthesis approach based on re-expressing the planning domain as generic environment specifications.
In this paper, we study LTLf synthesis under environment specifications for arbitrary reachability and safety properties. We consider both kinds of properties for both agent tasks and environment specifications, providing a complete landscape of synthesis algorithms. For each case, we devise a specific algorithm (optimal wrt complexity of the problem) and prove its correctness. The algorithms combine common building blocks in different ways. While some cases are already studied in literature others are studied here for the first time.
We consider an agent acting to fulfil tasks in a nondeterministic environment. When a strategy that fulfills the task regardless of how the environment acts does not exist, the agent should at least avoid adopting strategies that prevent from fulfilling its task. Best-effort synthesis captures this intuition. In this paper, we devise and compare various symbolic approaches for best-effort synthesis in Linear Temporal Logic on finite traces (LTLf). These approaches are based on the same basic components, however they change in how these components are combined, and this has a significant impact on the performance of the approaches as confirmed by our empirical evaluations.
Most of the synthesis literature has focused on studying how to synthesize a strategy to fulfill a task. This task is a duty for the agent. In this paper, we argue that intelligent agents should also be equipped with rights, that is, tasks that the agent itself can choose to fulfill (e.g., the right of recharging the battery). The agent should be able to maintain these rights while acting for its duties. We study this issue in the context of LTLf synthesis: we give duties and rights in terms of LTLf specifications, and synthesize a suitable strategy to achieve the duties that can be modified on-the-fly to achieve also the rights, if the agent chooses to do so. We show that handling rights does not make synthesis substantially more difficult, although it requires a more sophisticated solution concept than standard LTLf synthesis. We also extend our results to the case in which further duties and rights are given to the agent while already executing.
* International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation
and Reasoning (KR), 2022
Devising a strategy to make a system mimicking behaviors from another system is a problem that naturally arises in many areas of Computer Science. In this work, we interpret this problem in the context of intelligent agents, from the perspective of LTLf, a formalism commonly used in AI for expressing finite-trace properties. Our model consists of two separated dynamic domains, D_A and D_B, and an LTLf specification that formalizes the notion of mimicking by mapping properties on behaviors (traces) of D_A into properties on behaviors of D_B. The goal is to synthesize a strategy that step-by-step maps every behavior of D_A into a behavior of D_B so that the specification is met. We consider several forms of mapping specifications, ranging from simple ones to full LTLf, and for each we study synthesis algorithms and computational properties.
In synthesis, assumptions are constraints on the environment that rule out certain environment behaviors. A key observation here is that even if we consider systems with LTLf goals on finite traces, environment assumptions need to be expressed over infinite traces, since accomplishing the agent goals may require an unbounded number of environment action. To solve synthesis with respect to finite-trace LTLf goals under infinite-trace assumptions, we could reduce the problem to LTL synthesis. Unfortunately, while synthesis in LTLf and in LTL have the same worst-case complexity (both 2EXPTIME-complete), the algorithms available for LTL synthesis are much more difficult in practice than those for LTLf synthesis. In this work we show that in interesting cases we can avoid such a detour to LTL synthesis and keep the simplicity of LTLf synthesis. Specifically, we develop a BDD-based fixpoint-based technique for handling basic forms of fairness and of stability assumptions. We show, empirically, that this technique performs much better than standard LTL synthesis.
LTLf synthesis is the process of finding a strategy that satisfies a linear temporal specification over finite traces. An existing solution to this problem relies on a reduction to a DFA game. In this paper, we propose a symbolic framework for LTLf synthesis based on this technique, by performing the computation over a representation of the DFA as a boolean formula rather than as an explicit graph. This approach enables strategy generation by utilizing the mechanism of boolean synthesis. We implement this symbolic synthesis method in a tool called Syft, and demonstrate by experiments on scalable benchmarks that the symbolic approach scales better than the explicit one.