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Giuseppe De Giacomo, Marco Favorito, Luciana Silo

In this paper, we study the composition of services so as to obtain runs satisfying a task specification in Linear Temporal Logic on finite traces (LTLf). We study the problem in the case services are nondeterministic and the LTLf specification can be exactly met, and in the case services are stochastic, where we are interested in maximizing the probability of satisfaction of the LTLf specification and, simultaneously, minimizing the utilization cost of the services. To do so, we combine techniques from LTLf synthesis, service composition \`a la Roman Model, reactive synthesis, and bi-objective lexicographic optimization on MDPs. This framework has several interesting applications, including Smart Manufacturing and Digital Twins.

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Giuseppe De Giacomo, Gianmarco Parretti, Shufang Zhu

We study best-effort strategies (aka plans) in fully observable nondeterministic domains (FOND) for goals expressed in Linear Temporal Logic on Finite Traces (LTLf). The notion of best-effort strategy has been introduced to also deal with the scenario when no agent strategy exists that fulfills the goal against every possible nondeterministic environment reaction. Such strategies fulfill the goal if possible, and do their best to do so otherwise. We present a game-theoretic technique for synthesizing best-effort strategies that exploit the specificity of nondeterministic planning domains. We formally show its correctness and demonstrate its effectiveness experimentally, exhibiting a much greater scalability with respect to a direct best-effort synthesis approach based on re-expressing the planning domain as generic environment specifications.

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Benjamin Aminof, Giuseppe De Giacomo, Antonio Di Stasio, Hugo Francon, Sasha Rubin, Shufang Zhu

In this paper, we study LTLf synthesis under environment specifications for arbitrary reachability and safety properties. We consider both kinds of properties for both agent tasks and environment specifications, providing a complete landscape of synthesis algorithms. For each case, we devise a specific algorithm (optimal wrt complexity of the problem) and prove its correctness. The algorithms combine common building blocks in different ways. While some cases are already studied in literature others are studied here for the first time.

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Giuseppe De Giacomo, Gianmarco Parretti, Shufang Zhu

We consider an agent acting to fulfil tasks in a nondeterministic environment. When a strategy that fulfills the task regardless of how the environment acts does not exist, the agent should at least avoid adopting strategies that prevent from fulfilling its task. Best-effort synthesis captures this intuition. In this paper, we devise and compare various symbolic approaches for best-effort synthesis in Linear Temporal Logic on finite traces (LTLf). These approaches are based on the same basic components, however they change in how these components are combined, and this has a significant impact on the performance of the approaches as confirmed by our empirical evaluations.

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Ramon Fraga Pereira, Francesco Fuggitti, Felipe Meneguzzi, Giuseppe De Giacomo

Goal Recognition is the task of discerning the correct intended goal that an agent aims to achieve, given a set of goal hypotheses, a domain model, and a sequence of observations (i.e., a sample of the plan executed in the environment). Existing approaches assume that goal hypotheses comprise a single conjunctive formula over a single final state and that the environment dynamics are deterministic, preventing the recognition of temporally extended goals in more complex settings. In this paper, we expand goal recognition to temporally extended goals in Fully Observable Non-Deterministic (FOND) planning domain models, focusing on goals on finite traces expressed in Linear Temporal Logic (LTLf) and Pure Past Linear Temporal Logic (PLTLf). We develop the first approach capable of recognizing goals in such settings and evaluate it using different LTLf and PLTLf goals over six FOND planning domain models. Empirical results show that our approach is accurate in recognizing temporally extended goals in different recognition settings.

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Bita Banihashemi, Giuseppe De Giacomo, Yves Lespérance

We develop a general framework for abstracting the behavior of an agent that operates in a nondeterministic domain, i.e., where the agent does not control the outcome of the nondeterministic actions, based on the nondeterministic situation calculus and the ConGolog programming language. We assume that we have both an abstract and a concrete nondeterministic basic action theory, and a refinement mapping which specifies how abstract actions, decomposed into agent actions and environment reactions, are implemented by concrete ConGolog programs. This new setting supports strategic reasoning and strategy synthesis, by allowing us to quantify separately on agent actions and environment reactions. We show that if the agent has a (strong FOND) plan/strategy to achieve a goal/complete a task at the abstract level, and it can always execute the nondeterministic abstract actions to completion at the concrete level, then there exists a refinement of it that is a (strong FOND) plan/strategy to achieve the refinement of the goal/task at the concrete level.

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Roberto Cipollone, Giuseppe De Giacomo, Marco Favorito, Luca Iocchi, Fabio Patrizi

One major limitation to the applicability of Reinforcement Learning (RL) to many practical domains is the large number of samples required to learn an optimal policy. To address this problem and improve learning efficiency, we consider a linear hierarchy of abstraction layers of the Markov Decision Process (MDP) underlying the target domain. Each layer is an MDP representing a coarser model of the one immediately below in the hierarchy. In this work, we propose a novel form of Reward Shaping where the solution obtained at the abstract level is used to offer rewards to the more concrete MDP, in such a way that the abstract solution guides the learning in the more complex domain. In contrast with other works in Hierarchical RL, our technique has few requirements in the design of the abstract models and it is also tolerant to modeling errors, thus making the proposed approach practical. We formally analyze the relationship between the abstract models and the exploration heuristic induced in the lower-level domain. Moreover, we prove that the method guarantees optimal convergence and we demonstrate its effectiveness experimentally.

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Shufang Zhu, Giuseppe De Giacomo

Most of the synthesis literature has focused on studying how to synthesize a strategy to fulfill a task. This task is a duty for the agent. In this paper, we argue that intelligent agents should also be equipped with rights, that is, tasks that the agent itself can choose to fulfill (e.g., the right of recharging the battery). The agent should be able to maintain these rights while acting for its duties. We study this issue in the context of LTLf synthesis: we give duties and rights in terms of LTLf specifications, and synthesize a suitable strategy to achieve the duties that can be modified on-the-fly to achieve also the rights, if the agent chooses to do so. We show that handling rights does not make synthesis substantially more difficult, although it requires a more sophisticated solution concept than standard LTLf synthesis. We also extend our results to the case in which further duties and rights are given to the agent while already executing.

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Alessandro Ronca, Nadezda A. Knorozova, Giuseppe De Giacomo

Every automaton can be decomposed into a cascade of basic automata. This is the Prime Decomposition Theorem by Krohn and Rhodes. We show that cascades allow for describing the sample complexity of automata in terms of their components. In particular, we show that the sample complexity is linear in the number of components and the maximum complexity of a single component, modulo logarithmic factors. This opens to the possibility of learning automata representing large dynamical systems consisting of many parts interacting with each other. It is in sharp contrast with the established understanding of the sample complexity of automata, described in terms of the overall number of states and input letters, which implies that it is only possible to learn automata where the number of states is linear in the amount of data available. Instead our results show that one can learn automata with a number of states that is exponential in the amount of data available.

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Giuseppe De Giacomo, Dror Fried, Fabio Patrizi, Shufang Zhu

Devising a strategy to make a system mimicking behaviors from another system is a problem that naturally arises in many areas of Computer Science. In this work, we interpret this problem in the context of intelligent agents, from the perspective of LTLf, a formalism commonly used in AI for expressing finite-trace properties. Our model consists of two separated dynamic domains, D_A and D_B, and an LTLf specification that formalizes the notion of mimicking by mapping properties on behaviors (traces) of D_A into properties on behaviors of D_B. The goal is to synthesize a strategy that step-by-step maps every behavior of D_A into a behavior of D_B so that the specification is met. We consider several forms of mapping specifications, ranging from simple ones to full LTLf, and for each we study synthesis algorithms and computational properties.

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