The large-scale multiobjective optimization problem (LSMOP) is characterized by simultaneously optimizing multiple conflicting objectives and involving hundreds of decision variables. Many real-world applications in engineering fields can be modeled as LSMOPs; simultaneously, engineering applications require insensitivity in performance. This requirement usually means that the results from the algorithm runs should not only be good for every run in terms of performance but also that the performance of multiple runs should not fluctuate too much, i.e., the algorithm shows good insensitivity. Considering that substantial computational resources are requested for each run, it is essential to improve upon the performance of the large-scale multiobjective optimization algorithm, as well as the insensitivity of the algorithm. However, existing large-scale multiobjective optimization algorithms solely focus on improving the performance of the algorithms, leaving the insensitivity characteristics unattended. In this work, we propose an evolutionary algorithm for solving LSMOPs based on Monte Carlo tree search, the so-called LMMOCTS, which aims to improve the performance and insensitivity for large-scale multiobjective optimization problems. The proposed method samples the decision variables to construct new nodes on the Monte Carlo tree for optimization and evaluation. It selects nodes with good evaluation for further search to reduce the performance sensitivity caused by large-scale decision variables. We compare the proposed algorithm with several state-of-the-art designs on different benchmark functions. We also propose two metrics to measure the sensitivity of the algorithm. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness and performance insensitivity of the proposed design for solving large-scale multiobjective optimization problems.
We define very large multi-objective optimization problems to be multiobjective optimization problems in which the number of decision variables is greater than 100,000 dimensions. This is an important class of problems as many real-world problems require optimizing hundreds of thousands of variables. Existing evolutionary optimization methods fall short of such requirements when dealing with problems at this very large scale. Inspired by the success of existing recommender systems to handle very large-scale items with limited historical interactions, in this paper we propose a method termed Very large-scale Multiobjective Optimization through Recommender Systems (VMORS). The idea of the proposed method is to transform the defined such very large-scale problems into a problem that can be tackled by a recommender system. In the framework, the solutions are regarded as users, and the different evolution directions are items waiting for the recommendation. We use Thompson sampling to recommend the most suitable items (evolutionary directions) for different users (solutions), in order to locate the optimal solution to a multiobjective optimization problem in a very large search space within acceptable time. We test our proposed method on different problems from 100,000 to 500,000 dimensions, and experimental results show that our method not only shows good performance but also significant improvement over existing methods.
Recently, evolutionary multitasking (EMT) has been successfully used in the field of high-dimensional classification. However, the generation of multiple tasks in the existing EMT-based feature selection (FS) methods is relatively simple, using only the Relief-F method to collect related features with similar importance into one task, which cannot provide more diversified tasks for knowledge transfer. Thus, this paper devises a new EMT algorithm for FS in high-dimensional classification, which first adopts different filtering methods to produce multiple tasks and then modifies a competitive swarm optimizer to efficiently solve these related tasks via knowledge transfer. First, a diversified multiple task generation method is designed based on multiple filtering methods, which generates several relevant low-dimensional FS tasks by eliminating irrelevant features. In this way, useful knowledge for solving simple and relevant tasks can be transferred to simplify and speed up the solution of the original high-dimensional FS task. Then, a competitive swarm optimizer is modified to simultaneously solve these relevant FS tasks by transferring useful knowledge among them. Numerous empirical results demonstrate that the proposed EMT-based FS method can obtain a better feature subset than several state-of-the-art FS methods on eighteen high-dimensional datasets.
Large-scale multiobjective optimization problems (LSMOPs) refer to optimization problems with multiple conflicting optimization objectives and hundreds or even thousands of decision variables. A key point in solving LSMOPs is how to balance exploration and exploitation so that the algorithm can search in a huge decision space efficiently. Large-scale multiobjective evolutionary algorithms consider the balance between exploration and exploitation from the individual's perspective. However, these algorithms ignore the significance of tackling this issue from the perspective of decision variables, which makes the algorithm lack the ability to search from different dimensions and limits the performance of the algorithm. In this paper, we propose a large-scale multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the attention mechanism, called (LMOAM). The attention mechanism will assign a unique weight to each decision variable, and LMOAM will use this weight to strike a balance between exploration and exploitation from the decision variable level. Nine different sets of LSMOP benchmarks are conducted to verify the algorithm proposed in this paper, and the experimental results validate the effectiveness of our design.
Lane change for autonomous vehicles (AVs) is an important but challenging task in complex dynamic traffic environments. Due to difficulties in guarantee safety as well as a high efficiency, AVs are inclined to choose relatively conservative strategies for lane change. To avoid the conservatism, this paper presents a cooperation-aware lane change method utilizing interactions between vehicles. We first propose an interactive trajectory prediction method to explore possible cooperations between an AV and the others. Further, an evaluation is designed to make a decision on lane change, in which safety, efficiency and comfort are taken into consideration. Thereafter, we propose a motion planning algorithm based on model predictive control (MPC), which incorporates AV's decision and surrounding vehicles' interactive behaviors into constraints so as to avoid collisions during lane change. Quantitative testing results show that compared with the methods without an interactive prediction, our method enhances driving efficiencies of the AV and other vehicles by 14.8$\%$ and 2.6$\%$ respectively, which indicates that a proper utilization of vehicle interactions can effectively reduce the conservatism of the AV and promote the cooperation between the AV and others.
The main feature of large-scale multi-objective optimization problems (LSMOP) is to optimize multiple conflicting objectives while considering thousands of decision variables at the same time. An efficient LSMOP algorithm should have the ability to escape the local optimal solution from the huge search space and find the global optimal. Most of the current researches focus on how to deal with decision variables. However, due to the large number of decision variables, it is easy to lead to high computational cost. Maintaining the diversity of the population is one of the effective ways to improve search efficiency. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic prediction model based on trend prediction model and generating-filtering strategy, called LT-PPM, to tackle the LSMOP. The proposed method enhances the diversity of the population through importance sampling. At the same time, due to the adoption of an individual-based evolution mechanism, the computational cost of the proposed method is independent of the number of decision variables, thus avoiding the problem of exponential growth of the search space. We compared the proposed algorithm with several state-of-the-art algorithms for different benchmark functions. The experimental results and complexity analysis have demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has significant improvement in terms of its performance and computational efficiency in large-scale multi-objective optimization.
Real-world multiobjective optimization problems usually involve conflicting objectives that change over time, which requires the optimization algorithms to quickly track the Pareto optimal front (POF) when the environment changes. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms based on prediction models have been considered promising. However, most existing approaches only make predictions based on the linear correlation between a finite number of optimal solutions in two or three previous environments. These incomplete information extraction strategies may lead to low prediction accuracy in some instances. In this paper, a novel prediction algorithm based on incremental support vector machine (ISVM) is proposed, called ISVM-DMOEA. We treat the solving of dynamic multiobjective optimization problems (DMOPs) as an online learning process, using the continuously obtained optimal solution to update an incremental support vector machine without discarding the solution information at earlier time. ISVM is then used to filter random solutions and generate an initial population for the next moment. To overcome the obstacle of insufficient training samples, a synthetic minority oversampling strategy is implemented before the training of ISVM. The advantage of this approach is that the nonlinear correlation between solutions can be explored online by ISVM, and the information contained in all historical optimal solutions can be exploited to a greater extent. The experimental results and comparison with chosen state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively tackle dynamic multiobjective optimization problems.
Large-scale multiobjective optimization problems (LSMOPs) are characterized as involving hundreds or even thousands of decision variables and multiple conflicting objectives. An excellent algorithm for solving LSMOPs should find Pareto-optimal solutions with diversity and escape from local optima in the large-scale search space. Previous research has shown that these optimal solutions are uniformly distributed on the manifold structure in the low-dimensional space. However, traditional evolutionary algorithms for solving LSMOPs have some deficiencies in dealing with this structural manifold, resulting in poor diversity, local optima, and inefficient searches. In this work, a generative adversarial network (GAN)-based manifold interpolation framework is proposed to learn the manifold and generate high-quality solutions on this manifold, thereby improving the performance of evolutionary algorithms. We compare the proposed algorithm with several state-of-the-art algorithms on large-scale multiobjective benchmark functions. Experimental results have demonstrated the significant improvements achieved by this framework in solving LSMOPs.
Robot gait optimization is the task of generating an optimal control trajectory under various internal and external constraints. Given the high dimensions of control space, this problem is particularly challenging for multi-legged robots walking in complex and unknown environments. Existing literatures often regard the gait generation as an optimization problem and solve the gait optimization from scratch for robots walking in a specific environment. However, such approaches do not consider the use of pre-acquired knowledge which can be useful in improving the quality and speed of motion generation in complex environments. To address the issue, this paper proposes a transfer learning-based evolutionary framework for multi-objective gait optimization, named Tr-GO. The idea is to initialize a high-quality population by using the technique of transfer learning, so any kind of population-based optimization algorithms can be seamlessly integrated into this framework. The advantage is that the generated gait can not only dynamically adapt to different environments and tasks, but also simultaneously satisfy multiple design specifications (e.g., speed, stability). The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework for the gait optimization problem based on three multi-objective evolutionary algorithms: NSGA-II, RM-MEDA and MOPSO. When transferring the pre-acquired knowledge from the plain terrain to various inclined and rugged ones, the proposed Tr-GO framework accelerates the evolution process by a minimum of 3-4 times compared with non-transferred scenarios.