Data science is an interdisciplinary research area where scientists are typically working with data coming from different fields. When using and analyzing data, the scientists implicitly agree to follow standards, procedures, and rules set in these fields. However, guidance on the responsibilities of the data scientists and the other involved actors in a data science project is typically missing. While literature shows that novel frameworks and tools are being proposed in support of open-science, data reuse, and research data management, there are currently no frameworks that can fully express responsibilities of a data science project. In this paper, we describe the Transparency, Accountability, Privacy, and Societal Responsibility Matrix (TAPS-RM) as framework to explore social, legal, and ethical aspects of data science projects. TAPS-RM acts as a tool to provide users with a holistic view of their project beyond key outcomes and clarifies the responsibilities of actors. We map the developed model of TAPS-RM with well-known initiatives for open data (such as FACT, FAIR and Datasheets for datasets). We conclude that TAPS-RM is a tool to reflect on responsibilities at a data science project level and can be used to advance responsible data science by design.
Despite the remarkable success of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) on text, images, and videos, generating high-quality tabular data is still under development owing to some unique challenges such as capturing dependencies in imbalanced data, optimizing the quality of synthetic patient data while preserving privacy. In this paper, we propose DP-CGANS, a differentially private conditional GAN framework consisting of data transformation, sampling, conditioning, and networks training to generate realistic and privacy-preserving tabular data. DP-CGANS distinguishes categorical and continuous variables and transforms them to latent space separately. Then, we structure a conditional vector as an additional input to not only presents the minority class in the imbalanced data, but also capture the dependency between variables. We inject statistical noise to the gradients in the networking training process of DP-CGANS to provide a differential privacy guarantee. We extensively evaluate our model with state-of-the-art generative models on three public datasets and two real-world personal health datasets in terms of statistical similarity, machine learning performance, and privacy measurement. We demonstrate that our model outperforms other comparable models, especially in capturing dependency between variables. Finally, we present the balance between data utility and privacy in synthetic data generation considering the different data structure and characteristics of real-world datasets such as imbalance variables, abnormal distributions, and sparsity of data.
One of the grand challenges discussed during the Dagstuhl Seminar "Knowledge Graphs: New Directions for Knowledge Representation on the Semantic Web" and described in its report is that of a: "Public FAIR Knowledge Graph of Everything: We increasingly see the creation of knowledge graphs that capture information about the entirety of a class of entities. [...] This grand challenge extends this further by asking if we can create a knowledge graph of "everything" ranging from common sense concepts to location based entities. This knowledge graph should be "open to the public" in a FAIR manner democratizing this mass amount of knowledge." Although linked open data (LOD) is one knowledge graph, it is the closest realisation (and probably the only one) to a public FAIR Knowledge Graph (KG) of everything. Surely, LOD provides a unique testbed for experimenting and evaluating research hypotheses on open and FAIR KG. One of the most neglected FAIR issues about KGs is their ongoing evolution and long term preservation. We want to investigate this problem, that is to understand what preserving and supporting the evolution of KGs means and how these problems can be addressed. Clearly, the problem can be approached from different perspectives and may require the development of different approaches, including new theories, ontologies, metrics, strategies, procedures, etc. This document reports a collaborative effort performed by 9 teams of students, each guided by a senior researcher as their mentor, attending the International Semantic Web Research School (ISWS 2019). Each team provides a different perspective to the problem of knowledge graph evolution substantiated by a set of research questions as the main subject of their investigation. In addition, they provide their working definition for KG preservation and evolution.
It is essential for the advancement of science that scientists and researchers share, reuse and reproduce workflows and protocols used by others. The FAIR principles are a set of guidelines that aim to maximize the value and usefulness of research data, and emphasize a number of important points regarding the means by which digital objects are found and reused by others. The question of how to apply these principles not just to the static input and output data but also to the dynamic workflows and protocols that consume and produce them is still under debate and poses a number of challenges. In this paper we describe our inclusive and overarching approach to apply the FAIR principles to workflows and protocols and demonstrate its benefits. We apply and evaluate our approach on a case study that consists of making the PREDICT workflow, a highly cited drug repurposing workflow, open and FAIR. This includes FAIRification of the involved datasets, as well as applying semantic technologies to represent and store data about the detailed versions of the general protocol, of the concrete workflow instructions, and of their execution traces. A semantic model was proposed to better address these specific requirements and were evaluated by answering competency questions. This semantic model consists of classes and relations from a number of existing ontologies, including Workflow4ever, PROV, EDAM, and BPMN. This allowed us then to formulate and answer new kinds of competency questions. Our evaluation shows the high degree to which our FAIRified OpenPREDICT workflow now adheres to the FAIR principles and the practicality and usefulness of being able to answer our new competency questions.
Combining data from varied sources has considerable potential for knowledge discovery: collaborating data parties can mine data in an expanded feature space, allowing them to explore a larger range of scientific questions. However, data sharing among different parties is highly restricted by legal conditions, ethical concerns, and / or data volume. Fueled by these concerns, the fields of cryptography and distributed learning have made great progress towards privacy-preserving and distributed data mining. However, practical implementations have been hampered by the limited scope or computational complexity of these methods. In this paper, we greatly extend the range of analyses available for vertically partitioned data, i.e., data collected by separate parties with different features on the same subjects. To this end, we present a novel approach for privacy-preserving generalized linear models, a fundamental and powerful framework underlying many prediction and classification procedures. We base our method on a distributed block coordinate descent algorithm to obtain parameter estimates, and we develop an extension to compute accurate standard errors without additional communication cost. We critically evaluate the information transfer for semi-honest collaborators and show that our protocol is secure against data reconstruction. Through both simulated and real-world examples we illustrate the functionality of our proposed algorithm. Without leaking information, our method performs as well on vertically partitioned data as existing methods on combined data -- all within mere minutes of computation time. We conclude that our method is a viable approach for vertically partitioned data analysis with a wide range of real-world applications.
The Singleton Property (SP) approach has been proposed for representing and querying metadata about RDF triples such as provenance, time, location, and evidence. In this approach, one singleton property is created to uniquely represent a relationship in a particular context, and in general, generates a large property hierarchy in the schema. It has become the subject of important questions from Semantic Web practitioners. Can an existing reasoner recognize the singleton property triples? And how? If the singleton property triples describe a data triple, then how can a reasoner infer this data triple from the singleton property triples? Or would the large property hierarchy affect the reasoners in some way? We address these questions in this paper and present our study about the reasoning aspects of the singleton properties. We propose a simple mechanism to enable existing reasoners to recognize the singleton property triples, as well as to infer the data triples described by the singleton property triples. We evaluate the effect of the singleton property triples in the reasoning processes by comparing the performance on RDF datasets with and without singleton properties. Our evaluation uses as benchmark the LUBM datasets and the LUBM-SP datasets derived from LUBM with temporal information added through singleton properties.
Applied ontology is a relatively new field which aims to apply theories and methods from diverse disciplines such as philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics and formal logics to perform or improve domain-specific tasks. To support the development of effective research methodologies for applied ontology, we critically discuss the question how its research results should be evaluated. We propose that results in applied ontology must be evaluated within their domain of application, based on some ontology-based task within the domain, and discuss quantitative measures which would facilitate the objective evaluation and comparison of research results in applied ontology.