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Autonomous flying robots, such as multirotors, often rely on deep learning models that makes predictions based on a camera image, e.g. for pose estimation. These models can predict surprising results if applied to input images outside the training domain. This fault can be exploited by adversarial attacks, for example, by computing small images, so-called adversarial patches, that can be placed in the environment to manipulate the neural network's prediction. We introduce flying adversarial patches, where multiple images are mounted on at least one other flying robot and therefore can be placed anywhere in the field of view of a victim multirotor. By introducing the attacker robots, the system is extended to an adversarial multi-robot system. For an effective attack, we compare three methods that simultaneously optimize multiple adversarial patches and their position in the input image. We show that our methods scale well with the number of adversarial patches. Moreover, we demonstrate physical flights with two robots, where we employ a novel attack policy that uses the computed adversarial patches to kidnap a robot that was supposed to follow a human.

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Autonomous flying robots, e.g. multirotors, often rely on a neural network that makes predictions based on a camera image. These deep learning (DL) models can compute surprising results if applied to input images outside the training domain. Adversarial attacks exploit this fault, for example, by computing small images, so-called adversarial patches, that can be placed in the environment to manipulate the neural network's prediction. We introduce flying adversarial patches, where an image is mounted on another flying robot and therefore can be placed anywhere in the field of view of a victim multirotor. For an effective attack, we compare three methods that simultaneously optimize the adversarial patch and its position in the input image. We perform an empirical validation on a publicly available DL model and dataset for autonomous multirotors. Ultimately, our attacking multirotor would be able to gain full control over the motions of the victim multirotor.

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Anna Willmann, Jurjen Couperus Cabadağ, Yen-Yu Chang, Richard Pausch, Amin Ghaith, Alexander Debus, Arie Irman, Michael Bussmann, Ulrich Schramm, Nico Hoffmann

Understanding and control of Laser-driven Free Electron Lasers remain to be difficult problems that require highly intensive experimental and theoretical research. The gap between simulated and experimentally collected data might complicate studies and interpretation of obtained results. In this work we developed a deep learning based surrogate that could help to fill in this gap. We introduce a surrogate model based on normalising flows for conditional phase-space representation of electron clouds in a FEL beamline. Achieved results let us discuss further benefits and limitations in exploitability of the models to gain deeper understanding of fundamental processes within a beamline.

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Patrick Stiller, Varun Makdani, Franz Pöschel, Richard Pausch, Alexander Debus, Michael Bussmann, Nico Hoffmann

The upcoming exascale era will provide a new generation of physics simulations. These simulations will have a high spatiotemporal resolution, which will impact the training of machine learning models since storing a high amount of simulation data on disk is nearly impossible. Therefore, we need to rethink the training of machine learning models for simulations for the upcoming exascale era. This work presents an approach that trains a neural network concurrently to a running simulation without storing data on a disk. The training pipeline accesses the training data by in-memory streaming. Furthermore, we apply methods from the domain of continual learning to enhance the generalization of the model. We tested our pipeline on the training of a 3d autoencoder trained concurrently to laser wakefield acceleration particle-in-cell simulation. Furthermore, we experimented with various continual learning methods and their effect on the generalization.

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Normalizing flows are prominent deep generative models that provide tractable probability distributions and efficient density estimation. However, they are well known to fail while detecting Out-of-Distribution (OOD) inputs as they directly encode the local features of the input representations in their latent space. In this paper, we solve this overconfidence issue of normalizing flows by demonstrating that flows, if extended by an attention mechanism, can reliably detect outliers including adversarial attacks. Our approach does not require outlier data for training and we showcase the efficiency of our method for OOD detection by reporting state-of-the-art performance in diverse experimental settings. Code available at https://github.com/ComputationalRadiationPhysics/InFlow .

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Invertible neural networks are a recent technique in machine learning promising neural network architectures that can be run in forward and reverse mode. In this paper, we will be introducing invertible surrogate models that approximate complex forward simulation of the physics involved in laser plasma accelerators: iLWFA. The bijective design of the surrogate model also provides all means for reconstruction of experimentally acquired diagnostics. The quality of our invertible laser wakefield acceleration network will be verified on a large set of numerical LWFA simulations.

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Anna Willmann, Patrick Stiller, Alexander Debus, Arie Irman, Richard Pausch, Yen-Yu Chang, Michael Bussmann, Nico Hoffmann

In this work we propose a deep neural network based surrogate model for a plasma shadowgraph - a technique for visualization of perturbations in a transparent medium. We are substituting the numerical code by a computationally cheaper projection based surrogate model that is able to approximate the electric fields at a given time without computing all preceding electric fields as required by numerical methods. This means that the projection based surrogate model allows to recover the solution of the governing 3D partial differential equation, 3D wave equation, at any point of a given compute domain and configuration without the need to run a full simulation. This model has shown a good quality of reconstruction in a problem of interpolation of data within a narrow range of simulation parameters and can be used for input data of large size.

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Patrick Stiller, Friedrich Bethke, Maximilian Böhme, Richard Pausch, Sunna Torge, Alexander Debus, Jan Vorberger, Michael Bussmann, Nico Hoffmann

Solving partial differential equations (PDE) is an indispensable part of many branches of science as many processes can be modelled in terms of PDEs. However, recent numerical solvers require manual discretization of the underlying equation as well as sophisticated, tailored code for distributed computing. Scanning the parameters of the underlying model significantly increases the runtime as the simulations have to be cold-started for each parameter configuration. Machine Learning based surrogate models denote promising ways for learning complex relationship among input, parameter and solution. However, recent generative neural networks require lots of training data, i.e. full simulation runs making them costly. In contrast, we examine the applicability of continuous, mesh-free neural solvers for partial differential equations, physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) solely requiring initial/boundary values and validation points for training but no simulation data. The induced curse of dimensionality is approached by learning a domain decomposition that steers the number of neurons per unit volume and significantly improves runtime. Distributed training on large-scale cluster systems also promises great utilization of large quantities of GPUs which we assess by a comprehensive evaluation study. Finally, we discuss the accuracy of GatedPINN with respect to analytical solutions -- as well as state-of-the-art numerical solvers, such as spectral solvers.

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