Both computational and experimental material discovery bring forth the challenge of exploring multidimensional and often non-differentiable parameter spaces, such as phase diagrams of Hamiltonians with multiple interactions, composition spaces of combinatorial libraries, processing spaces, and molecular embedding spaces. Often these systems are expensive or time-consuming to evaluate a single instance, and hence classical approaches based on exhaustive grid or random search are too data intensive. This resulted in strong interest towards active learning methods such as Bayesian optimization (BO) where the adaptive exploration occurs based on human learning (discovery) objective. However, classical BO is based on a predefined optimization target, and policies balancing exploration and exploitation are purely data driven. In practical settings, the domain expert can pose prior knowledge on the system in form of partially known physics laws and often varies exploration policies during the experiment. Here, we explore interactive workflows building on multi-fidelity BO (MFBO), starting with classical (data-driven) MFBO, then structured (physics-driven) sMFBO, and extending it to allow human in the loop interactive iMFBO workflows for adaptive and domain expert aligned exploration. These approaches are demonstrated over highly non-smooth multi-fidelity simulation data generated from an Ising model, considering spin-spin interaction as parameter space, lattice sizes as fidelity spaces, and the objective as maximizing heat capacity. Detailed analysis and comparison show the impact of physics knowledge injection and on-the-fly human decisions for improved exploration, current challenges, and potential opportunities for algorithm development with combining data, physics and real time human decisions.
* Main text includes 29 pages and 10 figures, Supplementary mat.
includes 4 pages and 4 figures
Machine learning methods are progressively gaining acceptance in the electron microscopy community for de-noising, semantic segmentation, and dimensionality reduction of data post-acquisition. The introduction of the APIs by major instrument manufacturers now allows the deployment of ML workflows in microscopes, not only for data analytics but also for real-time decision-making and feedback for microscope operation. However, the number of use cases for real-time ML remains remarkably small. Here, we discuss some considerations in designing ML-based active experiments and pose that the likely strategy for the next several years will be human-in-the-loop automated experiments (hAE). In this paradigm, the ML learning agent directly controls beam position and image and spectroscopy acquisition functions, and human operator monitors experiment progression in real- and feature space of the system and tunes the policies of the ML agent to steer the experiment towards specific objectives.
Modern large-scale scientific discovery requires multidisciplinary collaboration across diverse computing facilities, including High Performance Computing (HPC) machines and the Edge-to-Cloud continuum. Integrated data analysis plays a crucial role in scientific discovery, especially in the current AI era, by enabling Responsible AI development, FAIR, Reproducibility, and User Steering. However, the heterogeneous nature of science poses challenges such as dealing with multiple supporting tools, cross-facility environments, and efficient HPC execution. Building on data observability, adapter system design, and provenance, we propose MIDA: an approach for lightweight runtime Multi-workflow Integrated Data Analysis. MIDA defines data observability strategies and adaptability methods for various parallel systems and machine learning tools. With observability, it intercepts the dataflows in the background without requiring instrumentation while integrating domain, provenance, and telemetry data at runtime into a unified database ready for user steering queries. We conduct experiments showing end-to-end multi-workflow analysis integrating data from Dask and MLFlow in a real distributed deep learning use case for materials science that runs on multiple environments with up to 276 GPUs in parallel. We show near-zero overhead running up to 100,000 tasks on 1,680 CPU cores on the Summit supercomputer.
* 19th IEEE International Conference on e-Science (eScience) 2023 -
Limassol, Cyprus * 10 pages, 5 figures, 2 Listings, 42 references, Paper accepted at
Electron and scanning probe microscopy produce vast amounts of data in the form of images or hyperspectral data, such as EELS or 4D STEM, that contain information on a wide range of structural, physical, and chemical properties of materials. To extract valuable insights from these data, it is crucial to identify physically separate regions in the data, such as phases, ferroic variants, and boundaries between them. In order to derive an easily interpretable feature analysis, combining with well-defined boundaries in a principled and unsupervised manner, here we present a physics augmented machine learning method which combines the capability of Variational Autoencoders to disentangle factors of variability within the data and the physics driven loss function that seeks to minimize the total length of the discontinuities in images corresponding to latent representations. Our method is applied to various materials, including NiO-LSMO, BiFeO3, and graphene. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in extracting meaningful information from large volumes of imaging data. The fully notebook containing implementation of the code and analysis workflow is available at https://github.com/arpanbiswas52/PaperNotebooks
* 20 pages, 7 figures in main text, 4 figures in Supp Mat
We pose that microscopy offers an ideal real-world experimental environment for the development and deployment of active Bayesian and reinforcement learning methods. Indeed, the tremendous progress achieved by machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence over the last decade has been largely achieved via the utilization of static data sets, from the paradigmatic MNIST to the bespoke corpora of text and image data used to train large models such as GPT3, DALLE and others. However, it is now recognized that continuous, minute improvements to state-of-the-art do not necessarily translate to advances in real-world applications. We argue that a promising pathway for the development of ML methods is via the route of domain-specific deployable algorithms in areas such as electron and scanning probe microscopy and chemical imaging. This will benefit both fundamental physical studies and serve as a test bed for more complex autonomous systems such as robotics and manufacturing. Favorable environment characteristics of scanning and electron microscopy include low risk, extensive availability of domain-specific priors and rewards, relatively small effects of exogeneous variables, and often the presence of both upstream first principles as well as downstream learnable physical models for both statics and dynamics. Recent developments in programmable interfaces, edge computing, and access to APIs facilitating microscope control, all render the deployment of ML codes on operational microscopes straightforward. We discuss these considerations and hope that these arguments will lead to creating a novel set of development targets for the ML community by accelerating both real-world ML applications and scientific progress.
Unsupervised and semi-supervised ML methods such as variational autoencoders (VAE) have become widely adopted across multiple areas of physics, chemistry, and materials sciences due to their capability in disentangling representations and ability to find latent manifolds for classification and regression of complex experimental data. Like other ML problems, VAEs require hyperparameter tuning, e.g., balancing the Kullback Leibler (KL) and reconstruction terms. However, the training process and resulting manifold topology and connectivity depend not only on hyperparameters, but also their evolution during training. Because of the inefficiency of exhaustive search in a high-dimensional hyperparameter space for the expensive to train models, here we explored a latent Bayesian optimization (zBO) approach for the hyperparameter trajectory optimization for the unsupervised and semi-supervised ML and demonstrate for joint-VAE with rotational invariances. We demonstrate an application of this method for finding joint discrete and continuous rotationally invariant representations for MNIST and experimental data of a plasmonic nanoparticles material system. The performance of the proposed approach has been discussed extensively, where it allows for any high dimensional hyperparameter tuning or trajectory optimization of other ML models.
* 32 pages, including 11 figures in the main text and Appendixes with 2
figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2108.12889
Recent progress in machine learning methods, and the emerging availability of programmable interfaces for scanning probe microscopes (SPMs), have propelled automated and autonomous microscopies to the forefront of attention of the scientific community. However, enabling automated microscopy requires the development of task-specific machine learning methods, understanding the interplay between physics discovery and machine learning, and fully defined discovery workflows. This, in turn, requires balancing the physical intuition and prior knowledge of the domain scientist with rewards that define experimental goals and machine learning algorithms that can translate these to specific experimental protocols. Here, we discuss the basic principles of Bayesian active learning and illustrate its applications for SPM. We progress from the Gaussian Process as a simple data-driven method and Bayesian inference for physical models as an extension of physics-based functional fits to more complex deep kernel learning methods, structured Gaussian Processes, and hypothesis learning. These frameworks allow for the use of prior data, the discovery of specific functionalities as encoded in spectral data, and exploration of physical laws manifesting during the experiment. The discussed framework can be universally applied to all techniques combining imaging and spectroscopy, SPM methods, nanoindentation, electron microscopy and spectroscopy, and chemical imaging methods, and can be particularly impactful for destructive or irreversible measurements.
Active learning methods are rapidly becoming the integral component of automated experiment workflows in imaging, materials synthesis, and computation. The distinctive aspect of many experimental scenarios is the presence of multiple information channels, including both the intrinsic modalities of the measurement system and the exogenous environment and noise signals. One of the key tasks in experimental studies is hence establishing which of these channels is predictive of the behaviors of interest. Here we explore the problem of discovery of the optimal predictive channel for structure-property relationships (in microscopy) using deep kernel learning for modality selection in an active experiment setting. We further pose that this approach can be directly applicable to similar active learning tasks in automated synthesis and the discovery of quantitative structure-activity relations in molecular systems.
Recent advances in scanning tunneling and transmission electron microscopies (STM and STEM) have allowed routine generation of large volumes of imaging data containing information on the structure and functionality of materials. The experimental data sets contain signatures of long-range phenomena such as physical order parameter fields, polarization and strain gradients in STEM, or standing electronic waves and carrier-mediated exchange interactions in STM, all superimposed onto scanning system distortions and gradual changes of contrast due to drift and/or mis-tilt effects. Correspondingly, while the human eye can readily identify certain patterns in the images such as lattice periodicities, repeating structural elements, or microstructures, their automatic extraction and classification are highly non-trivial and universal pathways to accomplish such analyses are absent. We pose that the most distinctive elements of the patterns observed in STM and (S)TEM images are similarity and (almost-) periodicity, behaviors stemming directly from the parsimony of elementary atomic structures, superimposed on the gradual changes reflective of order parameter distributions. However, the discovery of these elements via global Fourier methods is non-trivial due to variability and lack of ideal discrete translation symmetry. To address this problem, we develop shift-invariant variational autoencoders (shift-VAE) that allow disentangling characteristic repeating features in the images, their variations, and shifts inevitable for random sampling of image space. Shift-VAEs balance the uncertainty in the position of the object of interest with the uncertainty in shape reconstruction. This approach is illustrated for model 1D data, and further extended to synthetic and experimental STM and STEM 2D data.
The proliferation of optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopies gives rise to large volumes of imaging data of objects as diversified as cells, bacteria, pollen, to nanoparticles and atoms and molecules. In most cases, the experimental data streams contain images having arbitrary rotations and translations within the image. At the same time, for many cases, small amounts of labeled data are available in the form of prior published results, image collections, and catalogs, or even theoretical models. Here we develop an approach that allows generalizing from a small subset of labeled data with a weak orientational disorder to a large unlabeled dataset with a much stronger orientational (and positional) disorder, i.e., it performs a classification of image data given a small number of examples even in the presence of a distribution shift between the labeled and unlabeled parts. This approach is based on the semi-supervised rotationally invariant variational autoencoder (ss-rVAE) model consisting of the encoder-decoder "block" that learns a rotationally (and translationally) invariant continuous latent representation of data and a classifier that encodes data into a finite number of discrete classes. The classifier part of the trained ss-rVAE inherits the rotational (and translational) invariances and can be deployed independently of the other parts of the model. The performance of the ss-rVAE is illustrated using the synthetic data sets with known factors of variation. We further demonstrate its application for experimental data sets of nanoparticles, creating nanoparticle libraries and disentangling the representations defining the physical factors of variation in the data. The code reproducing the results is available at https://github.com/ziatdinovmax/Semi-Supervised-VAE-nanoparticles.