One type of question that is commonly found in day-to-day scenarios is ``fan-out'' questions, complex multi-hop, multi-document reasoning questions that require finding information about a large number of entities. However, there exist few resources to evaluate this type of question-answering capability among large language models. To evaluate complex reasoning in LLMs more fully, we present FanOutQA, a high-quality dataset of fan-out question-answer pairs and human-annotated decompositions with English Wikipedia as the knowledge base. We formulate three benchmark settings across our dataset and benchmark 7 LLMs, including GPT-4, LLaMA 2, Claude-2.1, and Mixtral-8x7B, finding that contemporary models still have room to improve reasoning over inter-document dependencies in a long context. We provide our dataset and open-source tools to run models to encourage evaluation at https://fanoutqa.com
Deep neural networks excel in text classification tasks, yet their application in high-stakes domains is hindered by their lack of interpretability. To address this, we propose Text Bottleneck Models (TBMs), an intrinsically interpretable text classification framework that offers both global and local explanations. Rather than directly predicting the output label, TBMs predict categorical values for a sparse set of salient concepts and use a linear layer over those concept values to produce the final prediction. These concepts can be automatically discovered and measured by a Large Language Model (LLM), without the need for human curation. On 12 diverse datasets, using GPT-4 for both concept generation and measurement, we show that TBMs can rival the performance of established black-box baselines such as GPT-4 fewshot and finetuned DeBERTa, while falling short against finetuned GPT-3.5. Overall, our findings suggest that TBMs are a promising new framework that enhances interpretability, with minimal performance tradeoffs, particularly for general-domain text.
Language model applications are becoming increasingly popular and complex, often including features like tool usage and retrieval augmentation. However, existing frameworks for such applications are often opinionated, deciding for developers how their prompts ought to be formatted and imposing limitations on customizability and reproducibility. To solve this we present Kani: a lightweight, flexible, and model-agnostic open-source framework for building language model applications. Kani helps developers implement a variety of complex features by supporting the core building blocks of chat interaction: model interfacing, chat management, and robust function calling. All Kani core functions are easily overridable and well documented to empower developers to customize functionality for their own needs. Kani thus serves as a useful tool for researchers, hobbyists, and industry professionals alike to accelerate their development while retaining interoperability and fine-grained control.
Recent work in speech-to-speech translation (S2ST) has focused primarily on offline settings, where the full input utterance is available before any output is given. This, however, is not reasonable in many real-world scenarios. In latency-sensitive applications, rather than waiting for the full utterance, translations should be spoken as soon as the information in the input is present. In this work, we introduce a system for simultaneous S2ST targeting real-world use cases. Our system supports translation from 57 languages to English with tunable parameters for dynamically adjusting the latency of the output -- including four policies for determining when to speak an output sequence. We show that these policies achieve offline-level accuracy with minimal increases in latency over a Greedy (wait-$k$) baseline. We open-source our evaluation code and interactive test script to aid future SimulS2ST research and application development.
Recent work has shown that prompting language models with code-like representations of natural language leads to performance improvements on structured reasoning tasks. However, such tasks comprise only a small subset of all natural language tasks. In our work, we seek to answer whether or not code-prompting is the preferred way of interacting with language models in general. We compare code and text prompts across three popular GPT models (davinci, code-davinci-002, and text-davinci-002) on a broader selection of tasks (e.g., QA, sentiment, summarization) and find that with few exceptions, code prompts do not consistently outperform text prompts. Furthermore, we show that the style of code prompt has a large effect on performance for some but not all tasks and that fine-tuning on text instructions leads to better relative performance of code prompts.
As text generated by large language models proliferates, it becomes vital to understand how humans engage with such text, and whether or not they are able to detect when the text they are reading did not originate with a human writer. Prior work on human detection of generated text focuses on the case where an entire passage is either human-written or machine-generated. In this paper, we study a more realistic setting where text begins as human-written and transitions to being generated by state-of-the-art neural language models. We show that, while annotators often struggle at this task, there is substantial variance in annotator skill and that given proper incentives, annotators can improve at this task over time. Furthermore, we conduct a detailed comparison study and analyze how a variety of variables (model size, decoding strategy, fine-tuning, prompt genre, etc.) affect human detection performance. Finally, we collect error annotations from our participants and use them to show that certain textual genres influence models to make different types of errors and that certain sentence-level features correlate highly with annotator selection. We release the RoFT dataset: a collection of over 21,000 human annotations paired with error classifications to encourage future work in human detection and evaluation of generated text.
Language models demonstrate both quantitative improvement and new qualitative capabilities with increasing scale. Despite their potentially transformative impact, these new capabilities are as yet poorly characterized. In order to inform future research, prepare for disruptive new model capabilities, and ameliorate socially harmful effects, it is vital that we understand the present and near-future capabilities and limitations of language models. To address this challenge, we introduce the Beyond the Imitation Game benchmark (BIG-bench). BIG-bench currently consists of 204 tasks, contributed by 442 authors across 132 institutions. Task topics are diverse, drawing problems from linguistics, childhood development, math, common-sense reasoning, biology, physics, social bias, software development, and beyond. BIG-bench focuses on tasks that are believed to be beyond the capabilities of current language models. We evaluate the behavior of OpenAI's GPT models, Google-internal dense transformer architectures, and Switch-style sparse transformers on BIG-bench, across model sizes spanning millions to hundreds of billions of parameters. In addition, a team of human expert raters performed all tasks in order to provide a strong baseline. Findings include: model performance and calibration both improve with scale, but are poor in absolute terms (and when compared with rater performance); performance is remarkably similar across model classes, though with benefits from sparsity; tasks that improve gradually and predictably commonly involve a large knowledge or memorization component, whereas tasks that exhibit "breakthrough" behavior at a critical scale often involve multiple steps or components, or brittle metrics; social bias typically increases with scale in settings with ambiguous context, but this can be improved with prompting.
The task of inserting text into a specified position in a passage, known as fill in the blank (FitB), is useful for a variety of applications where writers interact with a natural language generation (NLG) system to craft text. While previous work has tackled this problem with models trained specifically to do the fill-in-the-blank task, a more useful model is one that can effectively perform _both_ FitB and continuation. In this work, we evaluate the feasibility of using a single model to do both tasks. We show that models pre-trained with a FitB-style objective are capable of both tasks, while models pre-trained for continuation are not. Finally, we show how FitB models can be easily finetuned to allow for fine-grained control over the length and word choice of the generation.
We conduct a feasibility study into the applicability of answer-agnostic question generation models to textbook passages. We show that a significant portion of errors in such systems arise from asking irrelevant or uninterpretable questions and that such errors can be ameliorated by providing summarized input. We find that giving these models human-written summaries instead of the original text results in a significant increase in acceptability of generated questions (33% $\rightarrow$ 83%) as determined by expert annotators. We also find that, in the absence of human-written summaries, automatic summarization can serve as a good middle ground.
* To be published in 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for
Computational Linguistics (ACL 2022)