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Authors:Yair Schiff, Zhong Yi Wan, Jeffrey B. Parker, Stephan Hoyer, Volodymyr Kuleshov, Fei Sha, Leonardo Zepeda-Núñez

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Abstract:Learning dynamics from dissipative chaotic systems is notoriously difficult due to their inherent instability, as formalized by their positive Lyapunov exponents, which exponentially amplify errors in the learned dynamics. However, many of these systems exhibit ergodicity and an attractor: a compact and highly complex manifold, to which trajectories converge in finite-time, that supports an invariant measure, i.e., a probability distribution that is invariant under the action of the dynamics, which dictates the long-term statistical behavior of the system. In this work, we leverage this structure to propose a new framework that targets learning the invariant measure as well as the dynamics, in contrast with typical methods that only target the misfit between trajectories, which often leads to divergence as the trajectories' length increases. We use our framework to propose a tractable and sample efficient objective that can be used with any existing learning objectives. Our Dynamics Stable Learning by Invariant Measures (DySLIM) objective enables model training that achieves better point-wise tracking and long-term statistical accuracy relative to other learning objectives. By targeting the distribution with a scalable regularization term, we hope that this approach can be extended to more complex systems exhibiting slowly-variant distributions, such as weather and climate models.

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Abstract:Diffusion models are a class of probabilistic generative models that have been widely used as a prior for image processing tasks like text conditional generation and inpainting. We demonstrate that these models can be adapted to make predictions and provide uncertainty quantification for chaotic dynamical systems. In these applications, diffusion models can implicitly represent knowledge about outliers and extreme events; however, querying that knowledge through conditional sampling or measuring probabilities is surprisingly difficult. Existing methods for conditional sampling at inference time seek mainly to enforce the constraints, which is insufficient to match the statistics of the distribution or compute the probability of the chosen events. To achieve these ends, optimally one would use the conditional score function, but its computation is typically intractable. In this work, we develop a probabilistic approximation scheme for the conditional score function which provably converges to the true distribution as the noise level decreases. With this scheme we are able to sample conditionally on nonlinear userdefined events at inference time, and matches data statistics even when sampling from the tails of the distribution.

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Authors:Anudhyan Boral, Zhong Yi Wan, Leonardo Zepeda-Núñez, James Lottes, Qing Wang, Yi-fan Chen, John Roberts Anderson, Fei Sha

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Abstract:We introduce a data-driven learning framework that assimilates two powerful ideas: ideal large eddy simulation (LES) from turbulence closure modeling and neural stochastic differential equations (SDE) for stochastic modeling. The ideal LES models the LES flow by treating each full-order trajectory as a random realization of the underlying dynamics, as such, the effect of small-scales is marginalized to obtain the deterministic evolution of the LES state. However, ideal LES is analytically intractable. In our work, we use a latent neural SDE to model the evolution of the stochastic process and an encoder-decoder pair for transforming between the latent space and the desired ideal flow field. This stands in sharp contrast to other types of neural parameterization of closure models where each trajectory is treated as a deterministic realization of the dynamics. We show the effectiveness of our approach (niLES - neural ideal LES) on a challenging chaotic dynamical system: Kolmogorov flow at a Reynolds number of 20,000. Compared to competing methods, our method can handle non-uniform geometries using unstructured meshes seamlessly. In particular, niLES leads to trajectories with more accurate statistics and enhances stability, particularly for long-horizon rollouts.

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Authors:Zhong Yi Wan, Ricardo Baptista, Yi-fan Chen, John Anderson, Anudhyan Boral, Fei Sha, Leonardo Zepeda-Núñez

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Abstract:We introduce a two-stage probabilistic framework for statistical downscaling between unpaired data. Statistical downscaling seeks a probabilistic map to transform low-resolution data from a (possibly biased) coarse-grained numerical scheme to high-resolution data that is consistent with a high-fidelity scheme. Our framework tackles the problem by tandeming two transformations: a debiasing step that is performed by an optimal transport map, and an upsampling step that is achieved by a probabilistic diffusion model with \textit{a posteriori} conditional sampling. This approach characterizes a conditional distribution without the need for paired data, and faithfully recovers relevant physical statistics from biased samples. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach on one- and two-dimensional fluid flow problems, which are representative of the core difficulties present in numerical simulations of weather and climate. Our method produces realistic high-resolution outputs from low-resolution inputs, by upsampling resolutions of $8\times$ and $16\times$. Moreover, our procedure correctly matches the statistics of physical quantities, even when the low-frequency content of the inputs and outputs do not match, a crucial but difficult-to-satisfy assumption needed by current state-of-the-art alternatives.

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Abstract:We present a data-driven, space-time continuous framework to learn surrogatemodels for complex physical systems described by advection-dominated partialdifferential equations. Those systems have slow-decaying Kolmogorovn-widththat hinders standard methods, including reduced order modeling, from producinghigh-fidelity simulations at low cost. In this work, we construct hypernetwork-based latent dynamical models directly on the parameter space of a compactrepresentation network. We leverage the expressive power of the network and aspecially designed consistency-inducing regularization to obtain latent trajectoriesthat are both low-dimensional and smooth. These properties render our surrogatemodels highly efficient at inference time. We show the efficacy of our frameworkby learning models that generate accurate multi-step rollout predictions at muchfaster inference speed compared to competitors, for several challenging examples.

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Authors:Gideon Dresdner, Dmitrii Kochkov, Peter Norgaard, Leonardo Zepeda-Núñez, Jamie A. Smith, Michael P. Brenner, Stephan Hoyer

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Abstract:Despite their ubiquity throughout science and engineering, only a handful of partial differential equations (PDEs) have analytical, or closed-form solutions. This motivates a vast amount of classical work on numerical simulation of PDEs and more recently, a whirlwind of research into data-driven techniques leveraging machine learning (ML). A recent line of work indicates that a hybrid of classical numerical techniques with machine learning can offer significant improvements over either approach alone. In this work, we show that the choice of the numerical scheme is crucial when incorporating physics-based priors. We build upon Fourier-based spectral methods, which are considerably more efficient than other numerical schemes for simulating PDEs with smooth and periodic solutions. Specifically, we develop ML-augmented spectral solvers for three model PDEs of fluid dynamics, which improve upon the accuracy of standard spectral solvers at the same resolution. We also demonstrate a handful of key design principles for combining machine learning and numerical methods for solving PDEs.

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Abstract:We propose an end-to-end deep learning framework that comprehensively solves the inverse wave scattering problem across all length scales. Our framework consists of the newly introduced wide-band butterfly network coupled with a simple training procedure that dynamically injects noise during training. While our trained network provides competitive results in classical imaging regimes, most notably it also succeeds in the super-resolution regime where other comparable methods fail. This encompasses both (i) reconstruction of scatterers with sub-wavelength geometric features, and (ii) accurate imaging when two or more scatterers are separated by less than the classical diffraction limit. We demonstrate these properties are retained even in the presence of strong noise and extend to scatterers not previously seen in the training set. In addition, our network is straightforward to train requiring no restarts and has an online runtime that is an order of magnitude faster than optimization-based algorithms. We perform experiments with a variety of wave scattering mediums and we demonstrate that our proposed framework outperforms both classical inversion and competing network architectures that specialize in oscillatory wave scattering data.

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Abstract:We introduce an end-to-end deep learning architecture called the wide-band butterfly network (WideBNet) for approximating the inverse scattering map from wide-band scattering data. This architecture incorporates tools from computational harmonic analysis, such as the butterfly factorization, and traditional multi-scale methods, such as the Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm, to drastically reduce the number of trainable parameters to match the inherent complexity of the problem. As a result WideBNet is efficient: it requires fewer training points than off-the-shelf architectures, and has stable training dynamics, thus it can rely on standard weight initialization strategies. The architecture automatically adapts to the dimensions of the data with only a few hyper-parameters that the user must specify. WideBNet is able to produce images that are competitive with optimization-based approaches, but at a fraction of the cost, and we also demonstrate numerically that it learns to super-resolve scatterers in the full aperture scattering setup.

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Abstract:The efficient treatment of long-range interactions for point clouds is a challenging problem in many scientific machine learning applications. To extract global information, one usually needs a large window size, a large number of layers, and/or a large number of channels. This can often significantly increase the computational cost. In this work, we present a novel neural network layer that directly incorporates long-range information for a point cloud. This layer, dubbed the long-range convolutional (LRC)-layer, leverages the convolutional theorem coupled with the non-uniform Fourier transform. In a nutshell, the LRC-layer mollifies the point cloud to an adequately sized regular grid, computes its Fourier transform, multiplies the result by a set of trainable Fourier multipliers, computes the inverse Fourier transform, and finally interpolates the result back to the point cloud. The resulting global all-to-all convolution operation can be performed in nearly-linear time asymptotically with respect to the number of input points. The LRC-layer is a particularly powerful tool when combined with local convolution as together they offer efficient and seamless treatment of both short and long range interactions. We showcase this framework by introducing a neural network architecture that combines LRC-layers with short-range convolutional layers to accurately learn the energy and force associated with a $N$-body potential. We also exploit the induced two-level decomposition and propose an efficient strategy to train the combined architecture with a reduced number of samples.

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Abstract:The task of using machine learning to approximate the mapping $\mathbf{x}\mapsto\sum_{i=1}^d x_i^2$ with $x_i\in[-1,1]$ seems to be a trivial one. Given the knowledge of the separable structure of the function, one can design a sparse network to represent the function very accurately, or even exactly. When such structural information is not available, and we may only use a dense neural network, the optimization procedure to find the sparse network embedded in the dense network is similar to finding the needle in a haystack, using a given number of samples of the function. We demonstrate that the cost (measured by sample complexity) of finding the needle is directly related to the Barron norm of the function. While only a small number of samples is needed to train a sparse network, the dense network trained with the same number of samples exhibits large test loss and a large generalization gap. In order to control the size of the generalization gap, we find that the use of explicit regularization becomes increasingly more important as $d$ increases. The numerically observed sample complexity with explicit regularization scales as $\mathcal{O}(d^{2.5})$, which is in fact better than the theoretically predicted sample complexity that scales as $\mathcal{O}(d^{4})$. Without explicit regularization (also called implicit regularization), the numerically observed sample complexity is significantly higher and is close to $\mathcal{O}(d^{4.5})$.

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