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Transformers are widely used as generic backbones in computer vision, despite initially introduced for natural language processing. Recently, the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) has been extended to a scalable and performant architecture - the xLSTM - which overcomes long-standing LSTM limitations via exponential gating and parallelizable matrix memory structure. In this report, we introduce Vision-LSTM (ViL), an adaption of the xLSTM building blocks to computer vision. ViL comprises a stack of xLSTM blocks where odd blocks process the sequence of patch tokens from top to bottom while even blocks go from bottom to top. Experiments show that ViL holds promise to be further deployed as new generic backbone for computer vision architectures.

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Cristian Bodnar, Wessel P. Bruinsma, Ana Lucic, Megan Stanley, Johannes Brandstetter, Patrick Garvan, Maik Riechert, Jonathan Weyn, Haiyu Dong, Anna Vaughan(+7 more)

Deep learning foundation models are revolutionizing many facets of science by leveraging vast amounts of data to learn general-purpose representations that can be adapted to tackle diverse downstream tasks. Foundation models hold the promise to also transform our ability to model our planet and its subsystems by exploiting the vast expanse of Earth system data. Here we introduce Aurora, a large-scale foundation model of the atmosphere trained on over a million hours of diverse weather and climate data. Aurora leverages the strengths of the foundation modelling approach to produce operational forecasts for a wide variety of atmospheric prediction problems, including those with limited training data, heterogeneous variables, and extreme events. In under a minute, Aurora produces 5-day global air pollution predictions and 10-day high-resolution weather forecasts that outperform state-of-the-art classical simulation tools and the best specialized deep learning models. Taken together, these results indicate that foundation models can transform environmental forecasting.

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Maximilian Beck, Korbinian Pöppel, Markus Spanring, Andreas Auer, Oleksandra Prudnikova, Michael Kopp, Günter Klambauer, Johannes Brandstetter, Sepp Hochreiter

In the 1990s, the constant error carousel and gating were introduced as the central ideas of the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). Since then, LSTMs have stood the test of time and contributed to numerous deep learning success stories, in particular they constituted the first Large Language Models (LLMs). However, the advent of the Transformer technology with parallelizable self-attention at its core marked the dawn of a new era, outpacing LSTMs at scale. We now raise a simple question: How far do we get in language modeling when scaling LSTMs to billions of parameters, leveraging the latest techniques from modern LLMs, but mitigating known limitations of LSTMs? Firstly, we introduce exponential gating with appropriate normalization and stabilization techniques. Secondly, we modify the LSTM memory structure, obtaining: (i) sLSTM with a scalar memory, a scalar update, and new memory mixing, (ii) mLSTM that is fully parallelizable with a matrix memory and a covariance update rule. Integrating these LSTM extensions into residual block backbones yields xLSTM blocks that are then residually stacked into xLSTM architectures. Exponential gating and modified memory structures boost xLSTM capabilities to perform favorably when compared to state-of-the-art Transformers and State Space Models, both in performance and scaling.

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Florian Sestak, Lisa Schneckenreiter, Johannes Brandstetter, Sepp Hochreiter, Andreas Mayr, Günter Klambauer

Being able to identify regions within or around proteins, to which ligands can potentially bind, is an essential step to develop new drugs. Binding site identification methods can now profit from the availability of large amounts of 3D structures in protein structure databases or from AlphaFold predictions. Current binding site identification methods heavily rely on graph neural networks (GNNs), usually designed to output E(3)-equivariant predictions. Such methods turned out to be very beneficial for physics-related tasks like binding energy or motion trajectory prediction. However, the performance of GNNs at binding site identification is still limited potentially due to the lack of dedicated nodes that model hidden geometric entities, such as binding pockets. In this work, we extend E(n)-Equivariant Graph Neural Networks (EGNNs) by adding virtual nodes and applying an extended message passing scheme. The virtual nodes in these graphs are dedicated quantities to learn representations of binding sites, which leads to improved predictive performance. In our experiments, we show that our proposed method VN-EGNN sets a new state-of-the-art at locating binding site centers on COACH420, HOLO4K and PDBbind2020.

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Lisa Schneckenreiter, Richard Freinschlag, Florian Sestak, Johannes Brandstetter, Günter Klambauer, Andreas Mayr

Graph neural networks (GNNs), and especially message-passing neural networks, excel in various domains such as physics, drug discovery, and molecular modeling. The expressivity of GNNs with respect to their ability to discriminate non-isomorphic graphs critically depends on the functions employed for message aggregation and graph-level readout. By applying signal propagation theory, we propose a variance-preserving aggregation function (VPA) that maintains expressivity, but yields improved forward and backward dynamics. Experiments demonstrate that VPA leads to increased predictive performance for popular GNN architectures as well as improved learning dynamics. Our results could pave the way towards normalizer-free or self-normalizing GNNs.

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Artur P. Toshev, Harish Ramachandran, Jonas A. Erbesdobler, Gianluca Galletti, Johannes Brandstetter, Nikolaus A. Adams

Particle-based fluid simulations have emerged as a powerful tool for solving the Navier-Stokes equations, especially in cases that include intricate physics and free surfaces. The recent addition of machine learning methods to the toolbox for solving such problems is pushing the boundary of the quality vs. speed tradeoff of such numerical simulations. In this work, we lead the way to Lagrangian fluid simulators compatible with deep learning frameworks, and propose JAX-SPH - a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) framework implemented in JAX. JAX-SPH builds on the code for dataset generation from the LagrangeBench project (Toshev et al., 2023) and extends this code in multiple ways: (a) integration of further key SPH algorithms, (b) restructuring the code toward a Python library, (c) verification of the gradients through the solver, and (d) demonstration of the utility of the gradients for solving inverse problems as well as a Solver-in-the-Loop application. Our code is available at https://github.com/tumaer/jax-sph.

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We present Clifford-Steerable Convolutional Neural Networks (CS-CNNs), a novel class of $\mathrm{E}(p, q)$-equivariant CNNs. CS-CNNs process multivector fields on pseudo-Euclidean spaces $\mathbb{R}^{p,q}$. They cover, for instance, $\mathrm{E}(3)$-equivariance on $\mathbb{R}^3$ and Poincar\'e-equivariance on Minkowski spacetime $\mathbb{R}^{1,3}$. Our approach is based on an implicit parametrization of $\mathrm{O}(p,q)$-steerable kernels via Clifford group equivariant neural networks. We significantly and consistently outperform baseline methods on fluid dynamics as well as relativistic electrodynamics forecasting tasks.

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We introduce the concept of geometry-informed neural networks (GINNs), which encompass (i) learning under geometric constraints, (ii) neural fields as a suitable representation, and (iii) generating diverse solutions to under-determined systems often encountered in geometric tasks. Notably, the GINN formulation does not require training data, and as such can be considered generative modeling driven purely by constraints. We add an explicit diversity loss to mitigate mode collapse. We consider several constraints, in particular, the connectedness of components which we convert to a differentiable loss through Morse theory. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of the GINN learning paradigm across a range of two and three-dimensional scenarios with increasing levels of complexity.

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Benedikt Alkin, Andreas Fürst, Simon Schmid, Lukas Gruber, Markus Holzleitner, Johannes Brandstetter

Deep neural network based surrogates for partial differential equations have recently gained increased interest. However, akin to their numerical counterparts, different techniques are used across applications, even if the underlying dynamics of the systems are similar. A prominent example is the Lagrangian and Eulerian specification in computational fluid dynamics, posing a challenge for neural networks to effectively model particle- as opposed to grid-based dynamics. We introduce Universal Physics Transformers (UPTs), a novel learning paradigm which models a wide range of spatio-temporal problems - both for Lagrangian and Eulerian discretization schemes. UPTs operate without grid- or particle-based latent structures, enabling flexibility across meshes and particles. UPTs efficiently propagate dynamics in the latent space, emphasized by inverse encoding and decoding techniques. Finally, UPTs allow for queries of the latent space representation at any point in space-time. We demonstrate the efficacy of UPTs in mesh-based fluid simulations, steady-state Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulations, and Lagrangian-based dynamics. Project page: https://ml-jku.github.io/UPT

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We introduce MIM (Masked Image Modeling)-Refiner, a contrastive learning boost for pre-trained MIM models. The motivation behind MIM-Refiner is rooted in the insight that optimal representations within MIM models generally reside in intermediate layers. Accordingly, MIM-Refiner leverages multiple contrastive heads that are connected to diverse intermediate layers. In each head, a modified nearest neighbor objective helps to construct respective semantic clusters. The refinement process is short but effective. Within a few epochs, we refine the features of MIM models from subpar to state-of-the-art, off-the-shelf features. Refining a ViT-H, pre-trained with data2vec 2.0 on ImageNet-1K, achieves new state-of-the-art results in linear probing (84.7%) and low-shot classification among models that are pre-trained on ImageNet-1K. In ImageNet-1K 1-shot classification, MIM-Refiner sets a new state-of-the-art of 64.2%, outperforming larger models that were trained on up to 2000x more data such as DINOv2-g, OpenCLIP-G and MAWS-6.5B. Project page: https://ml-jku.github.io/MIM-Refiner

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