Increasing demand for on-device Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems has resulted in renewed interests in developing automatic model compression techniques. Past research have shown that AutoML-based Low Rank Factorization (LRF) technique, when applied to an end-to-end Encoder-Attention-Decoder style ASR model, can achieve a speedup of up to 3.7x, outperforming laborious manual rank-selection approaches. However, we show that current AutoML-based search techniques only work up to a certain compression level, beyond which they fail to produce compressed models with acceptable word error rates (WER). In this work, we propose an iterative AutoML-based LRF approach that achieves over 5x compression without degrading the WER, thereby advancing the state-of-the-art in ASR compression.
In this paper, we present a new on-device automatic speech recognition (ASR) system based on monotonic chunk-wise attention (MoChA) models trained with large (> 10K hours) corpus. We attained around 90% of a word recognition rate for general domain mainly by using joint training of connectionist temporal classifier (CTC) and cross entropy (CE) losses, minimum word error rate (MWER) training, layer-wise pre-training and data augmentation methods. In addition, we compressed our models by more than 3.4 times smaller using an iterative hyper low-rank approximation (LRA) method while minimizing the degradation in recognition accuracy. The memory footprint was further reduced with 8-bit quantization to bring down the final model size to lower than 39 MB. For on-demand adaptation, we fused the MoChA models with statistical n-gram models, and we could achieve a relatively 36% improvement on average in word error rate (WER) for target domains including the general domain.
* Accepted and presented at the ASRU 2019 conference