Autoregressive transformers have shown remarkable success in video generation. However, the transformers are prohibited from directly learning the long-term dependency in videos due to the quadratic complexity of self-attention, and inherently suffering from slow inference time and error propagation due to the autoregressive process. In this paper, we propose Memory-efficient Bidirectional Transformer (MeBT) for end-to-end learning of long-term dependency in videos and fast inference. Based on recent advances in bidirectional transformers, our method learns to decode the entire spatio-temporal volume of a video in parallel from partially observed patches. The proposed transformer achieves a linear time complexity in both encoding and decoding, by projecting observable context tokens into a fixed number of latent tokens and conditioning them to decode the masked tokens through the cross-attention. Empowered by linear complexity and bidirectional modeling, our method demonstrates significant improvement over the autoregressive Transformers for generating moderately long videos in both quality and speed. Videos and code are available at https://sites.google.com/view/mebt-cvpr2023 .
Generative modeling of set-structured data, such as point clouds, requires reasoning over local and global structures at various scales. However, adopting multi-scale frameworks for ordinary sequential data to a set-structured data is nontrivial as it should be invariant to the permutation of its elements. In this paper, we propose SetVAE, a hierarchical variational autoencoder for sets. Motivated by recent progress in set encoding, we build SetVAE upon attentive modules that first partition the set and project the partition back to the original cardinality. Exploiting this module, our hierarchical VAE learns latent variables at multiple scales, capturing coarse-to-fine dependency of the set elements while achieving permutation invariance. We evaluate our model on point cloud generation task and achieve competitive performance to the prior arts with substantially smaller model capacity. We qualitatively demonstrate that our model generalizes to unseen set sizes and learns interesting subset relations without supervision. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/jw9730/setvae.