We present a simple and versatile framework for evaluating ranked lists in terms of group fairness and relevance, where the groups (i.e., possible attribute values) can be either nominal or ordinal in nature. First, we demonstrate that, if the attribute set is binary, our framework can easily quantify the overall polarity of each ranked list. Second, by utilising an existing diversified search test collection and treating each intent as an attribute value, we demonstrate that our framework can handle soft group membership, and that our group fairness measures are highly correlated with both adhoc IR and diversified IR measures under this setting. Third, we demonstrate how our framework can quantify intersectional group fairness based on multiple attribute sets. We also show that the similarity function for comparing the achieved and target distributions over the attribute values should be chosen carefully.
GPT-3 shows remarkable in-context learning ability of large-scale language models (LMs) trained on hundreds of billion scale data. Here we address some remaining issues less reported by the GPT-3 paper, such as a non-English LM, the performances of different sized models, and the effect of recently introduced prompt optimization on in-context learning. To achieve this, we introduce HyperCLOVA, a Korean variant of 82B GPT-3 trained on a Korean-centric corpus of 560B tokens. Enhanced by our Korean-specific tokenization, HyperCLOVA with our training configuration shows state-of-the-art in-context zero-shot and few-shot learning performances on various downstream tasks in Korean. Also, we show the performance benefits of prompt-based learning and demonstrate how it can be integrated into the prompt engineering pipeline. Then we discuss the possibility of materializing the No Code AI paradigm by providing AI prototyping capabilities to non-experts of ML by introducing HyperCLOVA studio, an interactive prompt engineering interface. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential of our methods with three successful in-house applications.
Video Question Answering (Video QA) requires fine-grained understanding of both video and language modalities to answer the given questions. In this paper, we propose novel training schemes for multiple-choice video question answering with a self-supervised pre-training stage and a supervised contrastive learning in the main stage as an auxiliary learning. In the self-supervised pre-training stage, we transform the original problem format of predicting the correct answer into the one that predicts the relevant question to provide a model with broader contextual inputs without any further dataset or annotation. For contrastive learning in the main stage, we add a masking noise to the input corresponding to the ground-truth answer, and consider the original input of the ground-truth answer as a positive sample, while treating the rest as negative samples. By mapping the positive sample closer to the masked input, we show that the model performance is improved. We further employ locally aligned attention to focus more effectively on the video frames that are particularly relevant to the given corresponding subtitle sentences. We evaluate our proposed model on highly competitive benchmark datasets related to multiple-choice videoQA: TVQA, TVQA+, and DramaQA. Experimental results show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on all datasets. We also validate our approaches through further analyses.
Sentence matching is widely used in various natural language tasks such as natural language inference, paraphrase identification, and question answering. For these tasks, understanding logical and semantic relationship between two sentences is required but it is yet challenging. Although attention mechanism is useful to capture the semantic relationship and to properly align the elements of two sentences, previous methods of attention mechanism simply use a summation operation which does not retain original features enough. Inspired by DenseNet, a densely connected convolutional network, we propose a densely-connected co-attentive recurrent neural network, each layer of which uses concatenated information of attentive features as well as hidden features of all the preceding recurrent layers. It enables preserving the original and the co-attentive feature information from the bottommost word embedding layer to the uppermost recurrent layer. To alleviate the problem of an ever-increasing size of feature vectors due to dense concatenation operations, we also propose to use an autoencoder after dense concatenation. We evaluate our proposed architecture on highly competitive benchmark datasets related to sentence matching. Experimental results show that our architecture, which retains recurrent and attentive features, achieves state-of-the-art performances for most of the tasks.