Seismic advances in generative AI algorithms for imagery, text, and other data types has led to the temptation to use synthetic data to train next-generation models. Repeating this process creates an autophagous (self-consuming) loop whose properties are poorly understood. We conduct a thorough analytical and empirical analysis using state-of-the-art generative image models of three families of autophagous loops that differ in how fixed or fresh real training data is available through the generations of training and in whether the samples from previous generation models have been biased to trade off data quality versus diversity. Our primary conclusion across all scenarios is that without enough fresh real data in each generation of an autophagous loop, future generative models are doomed to have their quality (precision) or diversity (recall) progressively decrease. We term this condition Model Autophagy Disorder (MAD), making analogy to mad cow disease.
We study the interpolation capabilities of implicit neural representations (INRs) of images. In principle, INRs promise a number of advantages, such as continuous derivatives and arbitrary sampling, being freed from the restrictions of a raster grid. However, empirically, INRs have been observed to poorly interpolate between the pixels of the fit image; in other words, they do not inherently possess a suitable prior for natural images. In this paper, we propose to address and improve INRs' interpolation capabilities by explicitly integrating image prior information into the INR architecture via deep decoder, a specific implementation of the deep image prior (DIP). Our method, which we call TITAN, leverages a residual connection from the input which enables integrating the principles of the grid-based DIP into the grid-free INR. Through super-resolution and computed tomography experiments, we demonstrate that our method significantly improves upon classic INRs, thanks to the induced natural image bias. We also find that by constraining the weights to be sparse, image quality and sharpness are enhanced, increasing the Lipschitz constant.
Deep neural networks have become essential for numerous applications due to their strong empirical performance such as vision, RL, and classification. Unfortunately, these networks are quite difficult to interpret, and this limits their applicability in settings where interpretability is important for safety, such as medical imaging. One type of deep neural network is neural tangent kernel that is similar to a kernel machine that provides some aspect of interpretability. To further contribute interpretability with respect to classification and the layers, we develop a new network as a combination of multiple neural tangent kernels, one to model each layer of the deep neural network individually as opposed to past work which attempts to represent the entire network via a single neural tangent kernel. We demonstrate the interpretability of this model on two datasets, showing that the multiple kernels model elucidates the interplay between the layers and predictions.
High dimensionality poses many challenges to the use of data, from visualization and interpretation, to prediction and storage for historical preservation. Techniques abound to reduce the dimensionality of fixed-length sequences, yet these methods rarely generalize to variable-length sequences. To address this gap, we extend existing methods that rely on the use of kernels to variable-length sequences via use of the Recurrent Neural Tangent Kernel (RNTK). Since a deep neural network with ReLu activation is a Max-Affine Spline Operator (MASO), we dub our approach Max-Affine Spline Kernel (MASK). We demonstrate how MASK can be used to extend principal components analysis (PCA) and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) and apply these new algorithms to separate synthetic time series data sampled from second-order differential equations.