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Haris Shuaib

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Validating transformers for redaction of text from electronic health records in real-world healthcare

Oct 05, 2023
Zeljko Kraljevic, Anthony Shek, Joshua Au Yeung, Ewart Jonathan Sheldon, Mohammad Al-Agil, Haris Shuaib, Xi Bai, Kawsar Noor, Anoop D. Shah, Richard Dobson, James Teo

Protecting patient privacy in healthcare records is a top priority, and redaction is a commonly used method for obscuring directly identifiable information in text. Rule-based methods have been widely used, but their precision is often low causing over-redaction of text and frequently not being adaptable enough for non-standardised or unconventional structures of personal health information. Deep learning techniques have emerged as a promising solution, but implementing them in real-world environments poses challenges due to the differences in patient record structure and language across different departments, hospitals, and countries. In this study, we present AnonCAT, a transformer-based model and a blueprint on how deidentification models can be deployed in real-world healthcare. AnonCAT was trained through a process involving manually annotated redactions of real-world documents from three UK hospitals with different electronic health record systems and 3116 documents. The model achieved high performance in all three hospitals with a Recall of 0.99, 0.99 and 0.96. Our findings demonstrate the potential of deep learning techniques for improving the efficiency and accuracy of redaction in global healthcare data and highlight the importance of building workflows which not just use these models but are also able to continually fine-tune and audit the performance of these algorithms to ensure continuing effectiveness in real-world settings. This approach provides a blueprint for the real-world use of de-identifying algorithms through fine-tuning and localisation, the code together with tutorials is available on GitHub (

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Current State of Community-Driven Radiological AI Deployment in Medical Imaging

Dec 29, 2022
Vikash Gupta, Barbaros Selnur Erdal, Carolina Ramirez, Ralf Floca, Laurence Jackson, Brad Genereaux, Sidney Bryson, Christopher P Bridge, Jens Kleesiek, Felix Nensa, Rickmer Braren, Khaled Younis, Tobias Penzkofer, Andreas Michael Bucher, Ming Melvin Qin, Gigon Bae, M. Jorge Cardoso, Sebastien Ourselin, Eric Kerfoot, Rahul Choudhury, Richard D. White, Tessa Cook, David Bericat, Matthew Lungren, Risto Haukioja, Haris Shuaib

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become commonplace to solve routine everyday tasks. Because of the exponential growth in medical imaging data volume and complexity, the workload on radiologists is steadily increasing. We project that the gap between the number of imaging exams and the number of expert radiologist readers required to cover this increase will continue to expand, consequently introducing a demand for AI-based tools that improve the efficiency with which radiologists can comfortably interpret these exams. AI has been shown to improve efficiency in medical-image generation, processing, and interpretation, and a variety of such AI models have been developed across research labs worldwide. However, very few of these, if any, find their way into routine clinical use, a discrepancy that reflects the divide between AI research and successful AI translation. To address the barrier to clinical deployment, we have formed MONAI Consortium, an open-source community which is building standards for AI deployment in healthcare institutions, and developing tools and infrastructure to facilitate their implementation. This report represents several years of weekly discussions and hands-on problem solving experience by groups of industry experts and clinicians in the MONAI Consortium. We identify barriers between AI-model development in research labs and subsequent clinical deployment and propose solutions. Our report provides guidance on processes which take an imaging AI model from development to clinical implementation in a healthcare institution. We discuss various AI integration points in a clinical Radiology workflow. We also present a taxonomy of Radiology AI use-cases. Through this report, we intend to educate the stakeholders in healthcare and AI (AI researchers, radiologists, imaging informaticists, and regulators) about cross-disciplinary challenges and possible solutions.

* 21 pages; 5 figures 
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MONAI: An open-source framework for deep learning in healthcare

Nov 04, 2022
M. Jorge Cardoso, Wenqi Li, Richard Brown, Nic Ma, Eric Kerfoot, Yiheng Wang, Benjamin Murrey, Andriy Myronenko, Can Zhao, Dong Yang, Vishwesh Nath, Yufan He, Ziyue Xu, Ali Hatamizadeh, Andriy Myronenko, Wentao Zhu, Yun Liu, Mingxin Zheng, Yucheng Tang, Isaac Yang, Michael Zephyr, Behrooz Hashemian, Sachidanand Alle, Mohammad Zalbagi Darestani, Charlie Budd, Marc Modat, Tom Vercauteren, Guotai Wang, Yiwen Li, Yipeng Hu, Yunguan Fu, Benjamin Gorman, Hans Johnson, Brad Genereaux, Barbaros S. Erdal, Vikash Gupta, Andres Diaz-Pinto, Andre Dourson, Lena Maier-Hein, Paul F. Jaeger, Michael Baumgartner, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Mona Flores, Justin Kirby, Lee A. D. Cooper, Holger R. Roth, Daguang Xu, David Bericat, Ralf Floca, S. Kevin Zhou, Haris Shuaib, Keyvan Farahani, Klaus H. Maier-Hein, Stephen Aylward, Prerna Dogra, Sebastien Ourselin, Andrew Feng

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) is having a tremendous impact across most areas of science. Applications of AI in healthcare have the potential to improve our ability to detect, diagnose, prognose, and intervene on human disease. For AI models to be used clinically, they need to be made safe, reproducible and robust, and the underlying software framework must be aware of the particularities (e.g. geometry, physiology, physics) of medical data being processed. This work introduces MONAI, a freely available, community-supported, and consortium-led PyTorch-based framework for deep learning in healthcare. MONAI extends PyTorch to support medical data, with a particular focus on imaging, and provide purpose-specific AI model architectures, transformations and utilities that streamline the development and deployment of medical AI models. MONAI follows best practices for software-development, providing an easy-to-use, robust, well-documented, and well-tested software framework. MONAI preserves the simple, additive, and compositional approach of its underlying PyTorch libraries. MONAI is being used by and receiving contributions from research, clinical and industrial teams from around the world, who are pursuing applications spanning nearly every aspect of healthcare.

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Federated Learning Enables Big Data for Rare Cancer Boundary Detection

Apr 25, 2022
Sarthak Pati, Ujjwal Baid, Brandon Edwards, Micah Sheller, Shih-Han Wang, G Anthony Reina, Patrick Foley, Alexey Gruzdev, Deepthi Karkada, Christos Davatzikos, Chiharu Sako, Satyam Ghodasara, Michel Bilello, Suyash Mohan, Philipp Vollmuth, Gianluca Brugnara, Chandrakanth J Preetha, Felix Sahm, Klaus Maier-Hein, Maximilian Zenk, Martin Bendszus, Wolfgang Wick, Evan Calabrese, Jeffrey Rudie, Javier Villanueva-Meyer, Soonmee Cha, Madhura Ingalhalikar, Manali Jadhav, Umang Pandey, Jitender Saini, John Garrett, Matthew Larson, Robert Jeraj, Stuart Currie, Russell Frood, Kavi Fatania, Raymond Y Huang, Ken Chang, Carmen Balana, Jaume Capellades, Josep Puig, Johannes Trenkler, Josef Pichler, Georg Necker, Andreas Haunschmidt, Stephan Meckel, Gaurav Shukla, Spencer Liem, Gregory S Alexander, Joseph Lombardo, Joshua D Palmer, Adam E Flanders, Adam P Dicker, Haris I Sair, Craig K Jones, Archana Venkataraman, Meirui Jiang, Tiffany Y So, Cheng Chen, Pheng Ann Heng, Qi Dou, Michal Kozubek, Filip Lux, Jan Michálek, Petr Matula, Miloš Keřkovský, Tereza Kopřivová, Marek Dostál, Václav Vybíhal, Michael A Vogelbaum, J Ross Mitchell, Joaquim Farinhas, Joseph A Maldjian, Chandan Ganesh Bangalore Yogananda, Marco C Pinho, Divya Reddy, James Holcomb, Benjamin C Wagner, Benjamin M Ellingson, Timothy F Cloughesy, Catalina Raymond, Talia Oughourlian, Akifumi Hagiwara, Chencai Wang, Minh-Son To, Sargam Bhardwaj, Chee Chong, Marc Agzarian, Alexandre Xavier Falcão, Samuel B Martins, Bernardo C A Teixeira, Flávia Sprenger, David Menotti, Diego R Lucio, Pamela LaMontagne, Daniel Marcus, Benedikt Wiestler, Florian Kofler, Ivan Ezhov, Marie Metz, Rajan Jain, Matthew Lee, Yvonne W Lui, Richard McKinley, Johannes Slotboom, Piotr Radojewski, Raphael Meier, Roland Wiest, Derrick Murcia, Eric Fu, Rourke Haas, John Thompson, David Ryan Ormond, Chaitra Badve, Andrew E Sloan, Vachan Vadmal, Kristin Waite, Rivka R Colen, Linmin Pei, Murat Ak, Ashok Srinivasan, J Rajiv Bapuraj, Arvind Rao, Nicholas Wang, Ota Yoshiaki, Toshio Moritani, Sevcan Turk, Joonsang Lee, Snehal Prabhudesai, Fanny Morón, Jacob Mandel, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Ben Glocker, Luke V M Dixon, Matthew Williams, Peter Zampakis, Vasileios Panagiotopoulos, Panagiotis Tsiganos, Sotiris Alexiou, Ilias Haliassos, Evangelia I Zacharaki, Konstantinos Moustakas, Christina Kalogeropoulou, Dimitrios M Kardamakis, Yoon Seong Choi, Seung-Koo Lee, Jong Hee Chang, Sung Soo Ahn, Bing Luo, Laila Poisson, Ning Wen, Pallavi Tiwari, Ruchika Verma, Rohan Bareja, Ipsa Yadav, Jonathan Chen, Neeraj Kumar, Marion Smits, Sebastian R van der Voort, Ahmed Alafandi, Fatih Incekara, Maarten MJ Wijnenga, Georgios Kapsas, Renske Gahrmann, Joost W Schouten, Hendrikus J Dubbink, Arnaud JPE Vincent, Martin J van den Bent, Pim J French, Stefan Klein, Yading Yuan, Sonam Sharma, Tzu-Chi Tseng, Saba Adabi, Simone P Niclou, Olivier Keunen, Ann-Christin Hau, Martin Vallières, David Fortin, Martin Lepage, Bennett Landman, Karthik Ramadass, Kaiwen Xu, Silky Chotai, Lola B Chambless, Akshitkumar Mistry, Reid C Thompson, Yuriy Gusev, Krithika Bhuvaneshwar, Anousheh Sayah, Camelia Bencheqroun, Anas Belouali, Subha Madhavan, Thomas C Booth, Alysha Chelliah, Marc Modat, Haris Shuaib, Carmen Dragos, Aly Abayazeed, Kenneth Kolodziej, Michael Hill, Ahmed Abbassy, Shady Gamal, Mahmoud Mekhaimar, Mohamed Qayati, Mauricio Reyes, Ji Eun Park, Jihye Yun, Ho Sung Kim, Abhishek Mahajan, Mark Muzi, Sean Benson, Regina G H Beets-Tan, Jonas Teuwen, Alejandro Herrera-Trujillo, Maria Trujillo, William Escobar, Ana Abello, Jose Bernal, Jhon Gómez, Joseph Choi, Stephen Baek, Yusung Kim, Heba Ismael, Bryan Allen, John M Buatti, Aikaterini Kotrotsou, Hongwei Li, Tobias Weiss, Michael Weller, Andrea Bink, Bertrand Pouymayou, Hassan F Shaykh, Joel Saltz, Prateek Prasanna, Sampurna Shrestha, Kartik M Mani, David Payne, Tahsin Kurc, Enrique Pelaez, Heydy Franco-Maldonado, Francis Loayza, Sebastian Quevedo, Pamela Guevara, Esteban Torche, Cristobal Mendoza, Franco Vera, Elvis Ríos, Eduardo López, Sergio A Velastin, Godwin Ogbole, Dotun Oyekunle, Olubunmi Odafe-Oyibotha, Babatunde Osobu, Mustapha Shu'aibu, Adeleye Dorcas, Mayowa Soneye, Farouk Dako, Amber L Simpson, Mohammad Hamghalam, Jacob J Peoples, Ricky Hu, Anh Tran, Danielle Cutler, Fabio Y Moraes, Michael A Boss, James Gimpel, Deepak Kattil Veettil, Kendall Schmidt, Brian Bialecki, Sailaja Marella, Cynthia Price, Lisa Cimino, Charles Apgar, Prashant Shah, Bjoern Menze, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Jason Martin, Spyridon Bakas

Although machine learning (ML) has shown promise in numerous domains, there are concerns about generalizability to out-of-sample data. This is currently addressed by centrally sharing ample, and importantly diverse, data from multiple sites. However, such centralization is challenging to scale (or even not feasible) due to various limitations. Federated ML (FL) provides an alternative to train accurate and generalizable ML models, by only sharing numerical model updates. Here we present findings from the largest FL study to-date, involving data from 71 healthcare institutions across 6 continents, to generate an automatic tumor boundary detector for the rare disease of glioblastoma, utilizing the largest dataset of such patients ever used in the literature (25,256 MRI scans from 6,314 patients). We demonstrate a 33% improvement over a publicly trained model to delineate the surgically targetable tumor, and 23% improvement over the tumor's entire extent. We anticipate our study to: 1) enable more studies in healthcare informed by large and diverse data, ensuring meaningful results for rare diseases and underrepresented populations, 2) facilitate further quantitative analyses for glioblastoma via performance optimization of our consensus model for eventual public release, and 3) demonstrate the effectiveness of FL at such scale and task complexity as a paradigm shift for multi-site collaborations, alleviating the need for data sharing.

* federated learning, deep learning, convolutional neural network, segmentation, brain tumor, glioma, glioblastoma, FeTS, BraTS 
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Machine Learning and Glioblastoma: Treatment Response Monitoring Biomarkers in 2021

Apr 15, 2021
Thomas Booth, Bernice Akpinar, Andrei Roman, Haris Shuaib, Aysha Luis, Alysha Chelliah, Ayisha Al Busaidi, Ayesha Mirchandani, Burcu Alparslan, Nina Mansoor, Keyoumars Ashkan, Sebastien Ourselin, Marc Modat

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The aim of the systematic review was to assess recently published studies on diagnostic test accuracy of glioblastoma treatment response monitoring biomarkers in adults, developed through machine learning (ML). Articles were searched for using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Register. Included study participants were adult patients with high grade glioma who had undergone standard treatment (maximal resection, radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide) and subsequently underwent follow-up imaging to determine treatment response status. Risk of bias and applicability was assessed with QUADAS 2 methodology. Contingency tables were created for hold-out test sets and recall, specificity, precision, F1-score, balanced accuracy calculated. Fifteen studies were included with 1038 patients in training sets and 233 in test sets. To determine whether there was progression or a mimic, the reference standard combination of follow-up imaging and histopathology at re-operation was applied in 67% of studies. The small numbers of patient included in studies, the high risk of bias and concerns of applicability in the study designs (particularly in relation to the reference standard and patient selection due to confounding), and the low level of evidence, suggest that limited conclusions can be drawn from the data. There is likely good diagnostic performance of machine learning models that use MRI features to distinguish between progression and mimics. The diagnostic performance of ML using implicit features did not appear to be superior to ML using explicit features. There are a range of ML-based solutions poised to become treatment response monitoring biomarkers for glioblastoma. To achieve this, the development and validation of ML models require large, well-annotated datasets where the potential for confounding in the study design has been carefully considered.

* Kia S.M. et al. (eds) Machine Learning in Clinical Neuroimaging and Radiogenomics in Neuro-oncology. MLCN 2020, RNO-AI 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12449  
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