Extent of resection after surgery is one of the main prognostic factors for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. To achieve this, accurate segmentation and classification of residual tumor from post-operative MR images is essential. The current standard method for estimating it is subject to high inter- and intra-rater variability, and an automated method for segmentation of residual tumor in early post-operative MRI could lead to a more accurate estimation of extent of resection. In this study, two state-of-the-art neural network architectures for pre-operative segmentation were trained for the task. The models were extensively validated on a multicenter dataset with nearly 1000 patients, from 12 hospitals in Europe and the United States. The best performance achieved was a 61\% Dice score, and the best classification performance was about 80\% balanced accuracy, with a demonstrated ability to generalize across hospitals. In addition, the segmentation performance of the best models was on par with human expert raters. The predicted segmentations can be used to accurately classify the patients into those with residual tumor, and those with gross total resection.
Molecular classification has transformed the management of brain tumors by enabling more accurate prognostication and personalized treatment. However, timely molecular diagnostic testing for patients with brain tumors is limited, complicating surgical and adjuvant treatment and obstructing clinical trial enrollment. In this study, we developed DeepGlioma, a rapid ($< 90$ seconds), artificial-intelligence-based diagnostic screening system to streamline the molecular diagnosis of diffuse gliomas. DeepGlioma is trained using a multimodal dataset that includes stimulated Raman histology (SRH); a rapid, label-free, non-consumptive, optical imaging method; and large-scale, public genomic data. In a prospective, multicenter, international testing cohort of patients with diffuse glioma ($n=153$) who underwent real-time SRH imaging, we demonstrate that DeepGlioma can predict the molecular alterations used by the World Health Organization to define the adult-type diffuse glioma taxonomy (IDH mutation, 1p19q co-deletion and ATRX mutation), achieving a mean molecular classification accuracy of $93.3\pm 1.6\%$. Our results represent how artificial intelligence and optical histology can be used to provide a rapid and scalable adjunct to wet lab methods for the molecular screening of patients with diffuse glioma.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) is an essential tool for quantifying metabolites in the body, but the low spatial resolution limits its clinical applications. Deep learning-based super-resolution methods provided promising results for improving the spatial resolution of MRSI, but the super-resolved images are often blurry compared to the experimentally-acquired high-resolution images. Attempts have been made with the generative adversarial networks to improve the image visual quality. In this work, we consider another type of generative model, the flow-based model, of which the training is more stable and interpretable compared to the adversarial networks. Specifically, we propose a flow-based enhancer network to improve the visual quality of super-resolution MRSI. Different from previous flow-based models, our enhancer network incorporates anatomical information from additional image modalities (MRI) and uses a learnable base distribution. In addition, we impose a guide loss and a data-consistency loss to encourage the network to generate images with high visual quality while maintaining high fidelity. Experiments on a 1H-MRSI dataset acquired from 25 high-grade glioma patients indicate that our enhancer network outperforms the adversarial networks and the baseline flow-based methods. Our method also allows visual quality adjustment and uncertainty estimation.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) is a valuable tool for studying metabolic activities in the human body, but the current applications are limited to low spatial resolutions. The existing deep learning-based MRSI super-resolution methods require training a separate network for each upscaling factor, which is time-consuming and memory inefficient. We tackle this multi-scale super-resolution problem using a Filter Scaling strategy that modulates the convolution filters based on the upscaling factor, such that a single network can be used for various upscaling factors. Observing that each metabolite has distinct spatial characteristics, we also modulate the network based on the specific metabolite. Furthermore, our network is conditioned on the weight of adversarial loss so that the perceptual sharpness of the super-resolved metabolic maps can be adjusted within a single network. We incorporate these network conditionings using a novel Multi-Conditional Module. The experiments were carried out on a 1H-MRSI dataset from 15 high-grade glioma patients. Results indicate that the proposed network achieves the best performance among several multi-scale super-resolution methods and can provide super-resolved metabolic maps with adjustable sharpness.