Dense prediction tasks are a fundamental class of problems in computer vision. As supervised methods suffer from high pixel-wise labeling cost, a few-shot learning solution that can learn any dense task from a few labeled images is desired. Yet, current few-shot learning methods target a restricted set of tasks such as semantic segmentation, presumably due to challenges in designing a general and unified model that is able to flexibly and efficiently adapt to arbitrary tasks of unseen semantics. We propose Visual Token Matching (VTM), a universal few-shot learner for arbitrary dense prediction tasks. It employs non-parametric matching on patch-level embedded tokens of images and labels that encapsulates all tasks. Also, VTM flexibly adapts to any task with a tiny amount of task-specific parameters that modulate the matching algorithm. We implement VTM as a powerful hierarchical encoder-decoder architecture involving ViT backbones where token matching is performed at multiple feature hierarchies. We experiment VTM on a challenging variant of Taskonomy dataset and observe that it robustly few-shot learns various unseen dense prediction tasks. Surprisingly, it is competitive with fully supervised baselines using only 10 labeled examples of novel tasks (0.004% of full supervision) and sometimes outperforms using 0.1% of full supervision. Codes are available at https://github.com/GitGyun/visual_token_matching.
Neural Processes (NPs) consider a task as a function realized from a stochastic process and flexibly adapt to unseen tasks through inference on functions. However, naive NPs can model data from only a single stochastic process and are designed to infer each task independently. Since many real-world data represent a set of correlated tasks from multiple sources (e.g., multiple attributes and multi-sensor data), it is beneficial to infer them jointly and exploit the underlying correlation to improve the predictive performance. To this end, we propose Multi-Task Processes (MTPs), an extension of NPs designed to jointly infer tasks realized from multiple stochastic processes. We build our MTPs in a hierarchical manner such that inter-task correlation is considered by conditioning all per-task latent variables on a single global latent variable. In addition, we further design our MTPs so that they can address multi-task settings with incomplete data (i.e., not all tasks share the same set of input points), which has high practical demands in various applications. Experiments demonstrate that MTPs can successfully model multiple tasks jointly by discovering and exploiting their correlations in various real-world data such as time series of weather attributes and pixel-aligned visual modalities.
Learning disentangled representation of data without supervision is an important step towards improving the interpretability of generative models. Despite recent advances in disentangled representation learning, existing approaches often suffer from the trade-off between representation learning and generation performance i.e. improving generation quality sacrifices disentanglement performance). We propose an Information-Distillation Generative Adversarial Network (ID-GAN), a simple yet generic framework that easily incorporates the existing state-of-the-art models for both disentanglement learning and high-fidelity synthesis. Our method learns disentangled representation using VAE-based models, and distills the learned representation with an additional nuisance variable to the separate GAN-based generator for high-fidelity synthesis. To ensure that both generative models are aligned to render the same generative factors, we further constrain the GAN generator to maximize the mutual information between the learned latent code and the output. Despite the simplicity, we show that the proposed method is highly effective, achieving comparable image generation quality to the state-of-the-art methods using the disentangled representation. We also show that the proposed decomposition leads to an efficient and stable model design, and we demonstrate photo-realistic high-resolution image synthesis results (1024x1024 pixels) for the first time using the disentangled representations.