We present a continuation to our previous work, in which we developed the MR-CKR framework to reason with knowledge overriding across contexts organized in multi-relational hierarchies. Reasoning is realized via ASP with algebraic measures, allowing for flexible definitions of preferences. In this paper, we show how to apply our theoretical work to real autonomous-vehicle scene data. Goal of this work is to apply MR-CKR to the problem of generating challenging scenes for autonomous vehicle learning. In practice, most of the scene data for AV learning models common situations, thus it might be difficult to capture cases where a particular situation occurs (e.g. partial occlusions of a crossing pedestrian). The MR-CKR model allows for data organization exploiting the multi-dimensionality of such data (e.g., temporal and spatial). Reasoning over multiple contexts enables the verification and configuration of scenes, using the combination of different scene ontologies. We describe a framework for semantically guided data generation, based on a combination of MR-CKR and Algebraic Measures. The framework is implemented in a proof-of-concept prototype exemplifying some cases of scene generation.
* Technical Report for Humane-AI micro-project "Multi-Relational
Contextual Reasoning for Complex Scene Generation for Autonomous Vehicle
Data". 23 pages, 6 figures
We deal with a challenging scheduling problem on parallel machines with sequence-dependent setup times and release dates from a real-world application of semiconductor work-shop production. There, jobs can only be processed by dedicated machines, thus few machines can determine the makespan almost regardless of how jobs are scheduled on the remaining ones. This causes problems when machines fail and jobs need to be rescheduled. Instead of optimising only the makespan, we put the individual machine spans in non-ascending order and lexicographically minimise the resulting tuples. This achieves that all machines complete as early as possible and increases the robustness of the schedule. We study the application of Answer-Set Programming (ASP) to solve this problem. While ASP eases modelling, the combination of timing constraints and the considered objective function challenges current solving technology. The former issue is addressed by using an extension of ASP by difference logic. For the latter, we devise different algorithms that use multi-shot solving. To tackle industrial-sized instances, we study different approximations and heuristics. Our experimental results show that ASP is indeed a promising KRR paradigm for this problem and is competitive with state-of-the-art CP and MIP solvers. Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP).
* Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming
Smart factories are equipped with machines that can sense their manufacturing environments, interact with each other, and control production processes. Smooth operation of such factories requires that the machines and engineering personnel that conduct their monitoring and diagnostics share a detailed common industrial knowledge about the factory, e.g., in the form of knowledge graphs. Creation and maintenance of such knowledge is expensive and requires automation. In this work we show how machine learning that is specifically tailored towards industrial applications can help in knowledge graph completion. In particular, we show how knowledge completion can benefit from event logs that are common in smart factories. We evaluate this on the knowledge graph from a real world-inspired smart factory with encouraging results.
* 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (BIGDATA)
Recently, low-dimensional vector space representations of knowledge graphs (KGs) have been applied to find answers to conjunctive queries (CQs) over incomplete KGs. However, the current methods only focus on inductive reasoning, i.e. answering CQs by predicting facts based on patterns learned from the data, and lack the ability of deductive reasoning by applying external domain knowledge. Such (expert or commonsense) domain knowledge is an invaluable resource which can be used to advance machine intelligence. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a neural-symbolic method for ontology-mediated CQ answering over incomplete KGs that operates in the embedding space. More specifically, we propose various data augmentation strategies to generate training queries using query-rewriting based methods and then exploit a novel loss function for training the model. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our training strategies and the new loss function, i.e., our method significantly outperforms the baseline in the settings that require both inductive and deductive reasoning.
Detecting small sets of relevant patterns from a given dataset is a central challenge in data mining. The relevance of a pattern is based on user-provided criteria; typically, all patterns that satisfy certain criteria are considered relevant. Rule-based languages like Answer Set Programming (ASP) seem well-suited for specifying such criteria in a form of constraints. Although progress has been made, on the one hand, on solving individual mining problems and, on the other hand, developing generic mining systems, the existing methods either focus on scalability or on generality. In this paper we make steps towards combining local (frequency, size, cost) and global (various condensed representations like maximal, closed, skyline) constraints in a generic and efficient way. We present a hybrid approach for itemset, sequence and graph mining which exploits dedicated highly optimized mining systems to detect frequent patterns and then filters the results using declarative ASP. To further demonstrate the generic nature of our hybrid framework we apply it to a problem of approximately tiling a database. Experiments on real-world datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed method and computational gains for itemset, sequence and graph mining, as well as approximate tiling. Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP).