Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Sudhanshu Chanpuriya, Cameron Musco, Konstantinos Sotiropoulos, Charalampos Tsourakakis

In this work, we introduce a novel evaluation framework for generative models of graphs, emphasizing the importance of model-generated graph overlap (Chanpuriya et al., 2021) to ensure both accuracy and edge-diversity. We delineate a hierarchy of graph generative models categorized into three levels of complexity: edge independent, node independent, and fully dependent models. This hierarchy encapsulates a wide range of prevalent methods. We derive theoretical bounds on the number of triangles and other short-length cycles producible by each level of the hierarchy, contingent on the model overlap. We provide instances demonstrating the asymptotic optimality of our bounds. Furthermore, we introduce new generative models for each of the three hierarchical levels, leveraging dense subgraph discovery (Gionis & Tsourakakis, 2015). Our evaluation, conducted on real-world datasets, focuses on assessing the output quality and overlap of our proposed models in comparison to other popular models. Our results indicate that our simple, interpretable models provide competitive baselines to popular generative models. Through this investigation, we aim to propel the advancement of graph generative models by offering a structured framework and robust evaluation metrics, thereby facilitating the development of models capable of generating accurate and edge-diverse graphs.

Via

Sudhanshu Chanpuriya, Cameron Musco

Algorithms for node clustering typically focus on finding homophilous structure in graphs. That is, they find sets of similar nodes with many edges within, rather than across, the clusters. However, graphs often also exhibit heterophilous structure, as exemplified by (nearly) bipartite and tripartite graphs, where most edges occur across the clusters. Grappling with such structure is typically left to the task of graph simplification. We present a probabilistic model based on non-negative matrix factorization which unifies clustering and simplification, and provides a framework for modeling arbitrary graph structure. Our model is based on factorizing the process of taking a random walk on the graph. It permits an unconstrained parametrization, allowing for optimization via simple gradient descent. By relaxing the hard clustering to a soft clustering, our algorithm relaxes potentially hard clustering problems to a tractable ones. We illustrate our algorithm's capabilities on a synthetic graph, as well as simple unsupervised learning tasks involving bipartite and tripartite clustering of orthographic and phonological data.

Via

Mohit Yadav, Daniel Sheldon, Cameron Musco

Structured kernel interpolation (SKI) accelerates Gaussian process (GP) inference by interpolating the kernel covariance function using a dense grid of inducing points, whose corresponding kernel matrix is highly structured and thus amenable to fast linear algebra. Unfortunately, SKI scales poorly in the dimension of the input points, since the dense grid size grows exponentially with the dimension. To mitigate this issue, we propose the use of sparse grids within the SKI framework. These grids enable accurate interpolation, but with a number of points growing more slowly with dimension. We contribute a novel nearly linear time matrix-vector multiplication algorithm for the sparse grid kernel matrix. Next, we describe how sparse grids can be combined with an efficient interpolation scheme based on simplices. With these changes, we demonstrate that SKI can be scaled to higher dimensions while maintaining accuracy.

Via

Tung Mai, Alexander Munteanu, Cameron Musco, Anup B. Rao, Chris Schwiegelshohn, David P. Woodruff

We study oblivious sketching for $k$-sparse linear regression under various loss functions such as an $\ell_p$ norm, or from a broad class of hinge-like loss functions, which includes the logistic and ReLU losses. We show that for sparse $\ell_2$ norm regression, there is a distribution over oblivious sketches with $\Theta(k\log(d/k)/\varepsilon^2)$ rows, which is tight up to a constant factor. This extends to $\ell_p$ loss with an additional additive $O(k\log(k/\varepsilon)/\varepsilon^2)$ term in the upper bound. This establishes a surprising separation from the related sparse recovery problem, which is an important special case of sparse regression. For this problem, under the $\ell_2$ norm, we observe an upper bound of $O(k \log (d)/\varepsilon + k\log(k/\varepsilon)/\varepsilon^2)$ rows, showing that sparse recovery is strictly easier to sketch than sparse regression. For sparse regression under hinge-like loss functions including sparse logistic and sparse ReLU regression, we give the first known sketching bounds that achieve $o(d)$ rows showing that $O(\mu^2 k\log(\mu n d/\varepsilon)/\varepsilon^2)$ rows suffice, where $\mu$ is a natural complexity parameter needed to obtain relative error bounds for these loss functions. We again show that this dimension is tight, up to lower order terms and the dependence on $\mu$. Finally, we show that similar sketching bounds can be achieved for LASSO regression, a popular convex relaxation of sparse regression, where one aims to minimize $\|Ax-b\|_2^2+\lambda\|x\|_1$ over $x\in\mathbb{R}^d$. We show that sketching dimension $O(\log(d)/(\lambda \varepsilon)^2)$ suffices and that the dependence on $d$ and $\lambda$ is tight.

Via

Abhishek Sinha, Ativ Joshi, Rajarshi Bhattacharjee, Cameron Musco, Mohammad Hajiesmaili

We consider a fair resource allocation problem in the no-regret setting against an unrestricted adversary. The objective is to allocate resources equitably among several agents in an online fashion so that the difference of the aggregate $\alpha$-fair utilities of the agents between an optimal static clairvoyant allocation and that of the online policy grows sub-linearly with time. The problem is challenging due to the non-additive nature of the $\alpha$-fairness function. Previously, it was shown that no online policy can exist for this problem with a sublinear standard regret. In this paper, we propose an efficient online resource allocation policy, called Online Proportional Fair (OPF), that achieves $c_\alpha$-approximate sublinear regret with the approximation factor $c_\alpha=(1-\alpha)^{-(1-\alpha)}\leq 1.445,$ for $0\leq \alpha < 1$. The upper bound to the $c_\alpha$-regret for this problem exhibits a surprising phase transition phenomenon. The regret bound changes from a power-law to a constant at the critical exponent $\alpha=\frac{1}{2}.$ As a corollary, our result also resolves an open problem raised by Even-Dar et al. [2009] on designing an efficient no-regret policy for the online job scheduling problem in certain parameter regimes. The proof of our results introduces new algorithmic and analytical techniques, including greedy estimation of the future gradients for non-additive global reward functions and bootstrapping adaptive regret bounds, which may be of independent interest.

Via

Raghavendra Addanki, David Arbour, Tung Mai, Cameron Musco, Anup Rao

Treatment effect estimation is a fundamental problem in causal inference. We focus on designing efficient randomized controlled trials, to accurately estimate the effect of some treatment on a population of $n$ individuals. In particular, we study sample-constrained treatment effect estimation, where we must select a subset of $s \ll n$ individuals from the population to experiment on. This subset must be further partitioned into treatment and control groups. Algorithms for partitioning the entire population into treatment and control groups, or for choosing a single representative subset, have been well-studied. The key challenge in our setting is jointly choosing a representative subset and a partition for that set. We focus on both individual and average treatment effect estimation, under a linear effects model. We give provably efficient experimental designs and corresponding estimators, by identifying connections to discrepancy minimization and leverage-score-based sampling used in randomized numerical linear algebra. Our theoretical results obtain a smooth transition to known guarantees when $s$ equals the population size. We also empirically demonstrate the performance of our algorithms.

Via

Sudhanshu Chanpuriya, Ryan A. Rossi, Sungchul Kim, Tong Yu, Jane Hoffswell, Nedim Lipka, Shunan Guo, Cameron Musco

Temporal networks model a variety of important phenomena involving timed interactions between entities. Existing methods for machine learning on temporal networks generally exhibit at least one of two limitations. First, time is assumed to be discretized, so if the time data is continuous, the user must determine the discretization and discard precise time information. Second, edge representations can only be calculated indirectly from the nodes, which may be suboptimal for tasks like edge classification. We present a simple method that avoids both shortcomings: construct the line graph of the network, which includes a node for each interaction, and weigh the edges of this graph based on the difference in time between interactions. From this derived graph, edge representations for the original network can be computed with efficient classical methods. The simplicity of this approach facilitates explicit theoretical analysis: we can constructively show the effectiveness of our method's representations for a natural synthetic model of temporal networks. Empirical results on real-world networks demonstrate our method's efficacy and efficiency on both edge classification and temporal link prediction.

Via

Sudhanshu Chanpuriya, Cameron Musco

Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) (Kipf & Welling, 2017) attempt to extend the success of deep learning in modeling image and text data to graphs. However, like other deep models, GCNs comprise repeated nonlinear transformations of inputs and are therefore time and memory intensive to train. Recent work has shown that a much simpler and faster model, Simple Graph Convolution (SGC) (Wu et al., 2019), is competitive with GCNs in common graph machine learning benchmarks. The use of graph data in SGC implicitly assumes the common but not universal graph characteristic of homophily, wherein nodes link to nodes which are similar. Here we show that SGC is indeed ineffective for heterophilous (i.e., non-homophilous) graphs via experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets. We propose Adaptive Simple Graph Convolution (ASGC), which we show can adapt to both homophilous and heterophilous graph structure. Like SGC, ASGC is not a deep model, and hence is fast, scalable, and interpretable. We find that our non-deep method often outperforms state-of-the-art deep models at node classification on a benchmark of real-world datasets. The SGC paper questioned whether the complexity of graph neural networks is warranted for common graph problems involving homophilous networks; our results suggest that this question is still open even for more complicated problems involving heterophilous networks.

Via

Archan Ray, Nicholas Monath, Andrew McCallum, Cameron Musco

We study algorithms for approximating pairwise similarity matrices that arise in natural language processing. Generally, computing a similarity matrix for $n$ data points requires $\Omega(n^2)$ similarity computations. This quadratic scaling is a significant bottleneck, especially when similarities are computed via expensive functions, e.g., via transformer models. Approximation methods reduce this quadratic complexity, often by using a small subset of exactly computed similarities to approximate the remainder of the complete pairwise similarity matrix. Significant work focuses on the efficient approximation of positive semidefinite (PSD) similarity matrices, which arise e.g., in kernel methods. However, much less is understood about indefinite (non-PSD) similarity matrices, which often arise in NLP. Motivated by the observation that many of these matrices are still somewhat close to PSD, we introduce a generalization of the popular Nystr\"{o}m method to the indefinite setting. Our algorithm can be applied to any similarity matrix and runs in sublinear time in the size of the matrix, producing a rank-$s$ approximation with just $O(ns)$ similarity computations. We show that our method, along with a simple variant of CUR decomposition, performs very well in approximating a variety of similarity matrices arising in NLP tasks. We demonstrate high accuracy of the approximated similarity matrices in the downstream tasks of document classification, sentence similarity, and cross-document coreference.

Via

Cameron Musco, Christopher Musco, David P. Woodruff, Taisuke Yasuda

We study active sampling algorithms for linear regression, which aim to query only a small number of entries of a target vector $b\in\mathbb{R}^n$ and output a near minimizer to $\min_{x\in\mathbb{R}^d}\|Ax-b\|$, where $A\in\mathbb{R}^{n \times d}$ is a design matrix and $\|\cdot\|$ is some loss function. For $\ell_p$ norm regression for any $0<p<\infty$, we give an algorithm based on Lewis weight sampling that outputs a $(1+\epsilon)$ approximate solution using just $\tilde{O}(d^{\max(1,{p/2})}/\mathrm{poly}(\epsilon))$ queries to $b$. We show that this dependence on $d$ is optimal, up to logarithmic factors. Our result resolves a recent open question of Chen and Derezi\'{n}ski, who gave near optimal bounds for the $\ell_1$ norm, and suboptimal bounds for $\ell_p$ regression with $p\in(1,2)$. We also provide the first total sensitivity upper bound of $O(d^{\max\{1,p/2\}}\log^2 n)$ for loss functions with at most degree $p$ polynomial growth. This improves a recent result of Tukan, Maalouf, and Feldman. By combining this with our techniques for the $\ell_p$ regression result, we obtain an active regression algorithm making $\tilde O(d^{1+\max\{1,p/2\}}/\mathrm{poly}(\epsilon))$ queries, answering another open question of Chen and Derezi\'{n}ski. For the important special case of the Huber loss, we further improve our bound to an active sample complexity of $\tilde O(d^{(1+\sqrt2)/2}/\epsilon^c)$ and a non-active sample complexity of $\tilde O(d^{4-2\sqrt 2}/\epsilon^c)$, improving a previous $d^4$ bound for Huber regression due to Clarkson and Woodruff. Our sensitivity bounds have further implications, improving a variety of previous results using sensitivity sampling, including Orlicz norm subspace embeddings and robust subspace approximation. Finally, our active sampling results give the first sublinear time algorithms for Kronecker product regression under every $\ell_p$ norm.

Via