Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Abstract:Message Passing Neural Networks (MPNNs) are a staple of graph machine learning. MPNNs iteratively update each node's representation in an input graph by aggregating messages from the node's neighbors, which necessitates a memory complexity of the order of the number of graph edges. This complexity might quickly become prohibitive for large graphs provided they are not very sparse. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to alleviate this problem by approximating the input graph as an intersecting community graph (ICG) -- a combination of intersecting cliques. The key insight is that the number of communities required to approximate a graph does not depend on the graph size. We develop a new constructive version of the Weak Graph Regularity Lemma to efficiently construct an approximating ICG for any input graph. We then devise an efficient graph learning algorithm operating directly on ICG in linear memory and time with respect to the number of nodes (rather than edges). This offers a new and fundamentally different pipeline for learning on very large non-sparse graphs, whose applicability is demonstrated empirically on node classification tasks and spatio-temporal data processing.

Via

Abstract:Graph neural networks (GNNs) are the predominant architectures for a variety of learning tasks on graphs. We present a new angle on the expressive power of GNNs by studying how the predictions of a GNN probabilistic classifier evolve as we apply it on larger graphs drawn from some random graph model. We show that the output converges to a constant function, which upper-bounds what these classifiers can express uniformly. This convergence phenomenon applies to a very wide class of GNNs, including state of the art models, with aggregates including mean and the attention-based mechanism of graph transformers. Our results apply to a broad class of random graph models, including the (sparse) Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi model and the stochastic block model. We empirically validate these findings, observing that the convergence phenomenon already manifests itself on graphs of relatively modest size.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Graph neural networks are popular architectures for graph machine learning, based on iterative computation of node representations of an input graph through a series of invariant transformations. A large class of graph neural networks follow a standard message-passing paradigm: at every layer, each node state is updated based on an aggregate of messages from its neighborhood. In this work, we propose a novel framework for training graph neural networks, where every node is viewed as a player that can choose to either 'listen', 'broadcast', 'listen and broadcast', or to 'isolate'. The standard message propagation scheme can then be viewed as a special case of this framework where every node 'listens and broadcasts' to all neighbors. Our approach offers a more flexible and dynamic message-passing paradigm, where each node can determine its own strategy based on their state, effectively exploring the graph topology while learning. We provide a theoretical analysis of the new message-passing scheme which is further supported by an extensive empirical analysis on a synthetic dataset and on real-world datasets.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Strategic classification studies learning in settings where users can modify their features to obtain favorable predictions. Most current works focus on simple classifiers that trigger independent user responses. Here we examine the implications of learning with more elaborate models that break the independence assumption. Motivated by the idea that applications of strategic classification are often social in nature, we focus on \emph{graph neural networks}, which make use of social relations between users to improve predictions. Using a graph for learning introduces inter-user dependencies in prediction; our key point is that strategic users can exploit these to promote their goals. As we show through analysis and simulation, this can work either against the system -- or for it. Based on this, we propose a differentiable framework for strategically-robust learning of graph-based classifiers. Experiments on several real networked datasets demonstrate the utility of our approach.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Equivariance to permutations and rigid motions is an important inductive bias for various 3D learning problems. Recently it has been shown that the equivariant Tensor Field Network architecture is universal -- it can approximate any equivariant function. In this paper we suggest a much simpler architecture, prove that it enjoys the same universality guarantees and evaluate its performance on Modelnet40. The code to reproduce our experiments is available at \url{https://github.com/simpleinvariance/UniversalNetwork}

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Graph neural networks (GNNs) have shown broad applicability in a variety of domains. Some of these domains, such as social networks and product recommendations, are fertile ground for malicious users and behavior. In this paper, we show that GNNs are vulnerable to the extremely limited scenario of a single-node adversarial example, where the node cannot be picked by the attacker. That is, an attacker can force the GNN to classify any target node to a chosen label by only slightly perturbing another single arbitrary node in the graph, even when not being able to pick that specific attacker node. When the adversary is allowed to pick a specific attacker node, the attack is even more effective. We show that this attack is effective across various GNN types, such as GraphSAGE, GCN, GAT, and GIN, across a variety of real-world datasets, and as a targeted and a non-targeted attack. Our code is available at https://github.com/benfinkelshtein/SINGLE .

Via