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Bita Darvish Rouhani, Ritchie Zhao, Ankit More, Mathew Hall, Alireza Khodamoradi, Summer Deng, Dhruv Choudhary, Marius Cornea, Eric Dellinger, Kristof Denolf, Stosic Dusan, Venmugil Elango, Maximilian Golub, Alexander Heinecke, Phil James-Roxby, Dharmesh Jani, Gaurav Kolhe, Martin Langhammer, Ada Li, Levi Melnick, Maral Mesmakhosroshahi, Andres Rodriguez, Michael Schulte, Rasoul Shafipour, Lei Shao, Michael Siu, Pradeep Dubey, Paulius Micikevicius, Maxim Naumov, Colin Verrilli, Ralph Wittig, Doug Burger, Eric Chung

Narrow bit-width data formats are key to reducing the computational and storage costs of modern deep learning applications. This paper evaluates Microscaling (MX) data formats that combine a per-block scaling factor with narrow floating-point and integer types for individual elements. MX formats balance the competing needs of hardware efficiency, model accuracy, and user friction. Empirical results on over two dozen benchmarks demonstrate practicality of MX data formats as a drop-in replacement for baseline FP32 for AI inference and training with low user friction. We also show the first instance of training generative language models at sub-8-bit weights, activations, and gradients with minimal accuracy loss and no modifications to the training recipe.

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Tyler Highlander, Andres Rodriguez

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are currently state-of-the-art for various classification tasks, but are computationally expensive. Propagating through the convolutional layers is very slow, as each kernel in each layer must sequentially calculate many dot products for a single forward and backward propagation which equates to $\mathcal{O}(N^{2}n^{2})$ per kernel per layer where the inputs are $N \times N$ arrays and the kernels are $n \times n$ arrays. Convolution can be efficiently performed as a Hadamard product in the frequency domain. The bottleneck is the transformation which has a cost of $\mathcal{O}(N^{2}\log_2 N)$ using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, the increase in efficiency is less significant when $N\gg n$ as is the case in CNNs. We mitigate this by using the "overlap-and-add" technique reducing the computational complexity to $\mathcal{O}(N^2\log_2 n)$ per kernel. This method increases the algorithm's efficiency in both the forward and backward propagation, reducing the training and testing time for CNNs. Our empirical results show our method reduces computational time by a factor of up to 16.3 times the traditional convolution implementation for a 8 $\times$ 8 kernel and a 224 $\times$ 224 image.

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Joseph A. Fernandez, Vishnu Naresh Boddeti, Andres Rodriguez, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar

Correlation filters (CFs) are a class of classifiers that are attractive for object localization and tracking applications. Traditionally, CFs have been designed in the frequency domain using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), where correlation is efficiently implemented. However, existing CF designs do not account for the fact that the multiplication of two DFTs in the frequency domain corresponds to a circular correlation in the time/spatial domain. Because this was previously unaccounted for, prior CF designs are not truly optimal, as their optimization criteria do not accurately quantify their optimization intention. In this paper, we introduce new zero-aliasing constraints that completely eliminate this aliasing problem by ensuring that the optimization criterion for a given CF corresponds to a linear correlation rather than a circular correlation. This means that previous CF designs can be significantly improved by this reformulation. We demonstrate the benefits of this new CF design approach with several important CFs. We present experimental results on diverse data sets and present solutions to the computational challenges associated with computing these CFs. Code for the CFs described in this paper and their respective zero-aliasing versions is available at http://vishnu.boddeti.net/projects/correlation-filters.html

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