This work addresses the comparison between active and passive RISs in wireless networks, with reference to the system energy efficiency (EE). To provably convergent and computationally-friendly EE maximization algorithms are developed, which optimize the reflection coefficients of the RIS, the transmit powers, and the linear receive filters. Numerical results show the performance of the proposed methods and discuss the operating points in which active or passive RISs should be preferred from an energy-efficient perspective.
This work addresses the issue of energy efficiency maximization in a multi-user network aided by reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) with global reflection capabilities. Two optimization methods are proposed to optimize the mobile users' powers, the RIS coefficients and the linear receive filters. Both methods are provably convergent and require only the solution of convex optimization problems. The numerical results show that the proposed methods largely outperform heuristic resource allocation schemes.
Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is an emerging technology that is under investigation for different applications in wireless communications. RISs are often analyzed and optimized by considering simplified electromagnetic reradiation models. In this chapter, we aim to study the impact of realistic reradiation models for RISs as a function of the sub-wavelength inter-distance between nearby elements of the RIS, the quantization levels of the reflection coefficients, the interplay between the amplitude and phase of the reflection coefficients, and the presence of electromagnetic interference. We consider both case studies in which the users may be located in the far-field and near-field regions of an RIS. Our study shows that, due to design constraints, such as the need of using quantized reflection coefficients or the inherent interplay between the phase and the amplitude of the reflection coefficients, an RIS may reradiate power towards unwanted directions that depend on the intended and interfering electromagnetic waves. Therefore, it is in general important to optimize an RIS by considering the entire reradiation pattern by design to maximize the reradiated power towards the desired directions of reradiation while keeping the power reradiated towards other unwanted directions at a low level. Our study shows that a 2-bit digitally controllable RIS with an almost constant reflection amplitude as a function of the applied phase shift, and whose scattering elements have a size and an inter-distance between (1/8)th and (1/4)th of the signal wavelength may be a good tradeoff between performance, implementation complexity and cost. However, the presented results are preliminary and pave the way for further research into the performance of RISs based on accurate and realistic electromagnetic reradiation models.
In this paper, we concentrate on the employment of a user-centric (UC) cell-free massive MIMO (CFmMIMO) network for providing ultra reliable low latency communication (URLLC) when traditional ground users (GUs) coexists with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We study power control in both the downlink and the uplink of such a scenario when partial zero-forcing (PZF) transmit/receive beamforming and maximum ratio transmission/combining are utilized. We consider optimization problems where the objective is either to maximize the total users' sum URLLC rate or to maximize the minimum user's URLLC rate. The considered URLLC rate function is both complicated and nonconvex rendering the considered optimization problems nonconvex. Thus, we present two approximations for the URLLC rate function and resort to successive convex optimization (SCO) to tackle the considered optimization problems. Particularly, we present SCO with iterative concave lower bound approximation (SCO-ICBA) and SCO with iterative interference approximation (SCO-IIA). We provide extensive simulations to evaluate SCO-ICBA and SCO-IIA and compare UC CFmMIMO deployment with traditional colocated massive MIMO (COmMIMO) systems.
In this paper, a novel optimization model for joint beamforming and power control in the downlink (DL) of a cell-free massive MIMO (CFmMIMO) system is presented. The objective of the proposed optimization model is to minimize the maximum user interference while satisfying quality of service (QoS) constraints and power consumption limits. The proposed min-max optimization model is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear program, that is directly tractable. Numerical results show that the proposed joint beamforming and power control scheme is effective and outperforms competing schemes in terms of data rate, power consumption, and energy efficiency.
The potential of intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) is investigated as a promising technique for enhancing the energy efficiency of wireless networks. Specifically, the IRS enables passive beamsteering by employing many low-cost individually controllable reflect elements. The resulting change of the channel state, however, increases both, signal quality and interference at the users. To counteract this negative side effect, we employ rate splitting (RS), which inherently is able to mitigate the impact of interference. We facilitate practical implementation by considering a Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) at the cost of finite fronthaul-link capacities, which necessitate the allocation of sensible user-centric clusters to ensure energy-efficient transmissions. Dynamic methods for RS and the user clustering are proposed to account for the interdependencies of the individual techniques. Numerical results show that the dynamic RS method establishes synergistic benefits between RS and the IRS. Additionally, the dynamic user clustering and the IRS cooperate synergistically, with a gain of up to 88% when compared to the static scheme. Interestingly, with an increasing fronthaul capacity, the gain of the dynamic user clustering decreases, while the gain of the dynamic RS method increases. Around the resulting intersection, both methods affect the system concurrently, improving the energy efficiency drastically.
Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RISs) are recently attracting a wide interest due to their capability of tuning wireless propagation environments in order to increase the system performance of wireless networks. In this paper, a multiuser wireless network assisted by a RIS is studied and resource allocation algorithms are presented for several scenarios. First of all, the problem of channel estimation is considered, and an algorithm that permits separate estimation of the mobile user-to-RIS and RIS-to-base stations components is proposed. Then, for the special case of a single-user system, three possible approaches are shown in order to optimize the Signal-to-Noise Ratio with respect to the beamformer used at the base station and to the RIS phase shifts. Next, for a multiuser system with two cells, assuming channel-matched beamforming, the geometric mean of the downlink Signal-to-Interference plus Noise Ratios across users is maximized with respect to the base stations transmit powers and RIS phase shifts configurations. In this scenario, the RIS is placed at the cell-edge and some users are jointly served by two base stations to increase the system performance. Numerical results show that the proposed procedures are effective and that the RIS brings substantial performance improvements to wireless system.
The current literature on intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) focuses on optimizing the IRS phase shifts to yield coherent beamforming gains, under the assumption of perfect channel state information (CSI) of individual IRS-assisted links, which is highly impractical. This work, instead, considers the random rotations scheme at the IRS in which the reflecting elements only employ random phase rotations without requiring any CSI. The only CSI then needed is at the base station (BS) of the overall channel to implement the beamforming transmission scheme. Under this framework, we derive the sum-rate scaling laws in the large number of users regime for the IRS-assisted multiple-input single-output (MISO) broadcast channel, with optimal dirty paper coding (DPC) scheme and the lower-complexity random beamforming (RBF) and deterministic beamforming (DBF) schemes at the BS. The random rotations scheme increases the sum-rate by exploiting multi-user diversity, but also compromises the gain to some extent due to correlation. Finally, energy efficiency maximization problems in terms of the number of BS antennas, IRS elements and transmit power are solved using the derived scaling laws. Simulation results show the proposed scheme to improve the sum-rate, with performance becoming close to that under coherent beamforming for a large number of users.
Future wireless networks are expected to evolve towards an intelligent and software reconfigurable functionality paradigm enabling ubiquitous communication between humans and mobile devices, but also being capable of sensing, controlling, and optimizing the wireless environment to fulfill the visions of low powered, high throughput, massive connectivity, and low latency communications. A key conceptual enabler that is recently gaining increasing popularity is the Holographic Multiple Input Multiple Output Surface (HMIMOS) that refers to a low cost transformative wireless planar structure comprising of sub-wavelength metallic or dielectric scattering particles, which is capable of impacting electromagnetic waves according to desired objectives. In this article, we provide an overview of HMIMOS communications by introducing the available hardware architectures for reconfigurable metasurfaces and their main characteristics, as well as highlighting the opportunities and key design challenges when multiple HMIMOS are considered.