Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Andrei Semenov, Vladimir Ivanov, Aleksandr Beznosikov, Alexander Gasnikov

We propose a novel architecture and method of explainable classification with Concept Bottleneck Models (CBMs). While SOTA approaches to Image Classification task work as a black box, there is a growing demand for models that would provide interpreted results. Such a models often learn to predict the distribution over class labels using additional description of this target instances, called concepts. However, existing Bottleneck methods have a number of limitations: their accuracy is lower than that of a standard model and CBMs require an additional set of concepts to leverage. We provide a framework for creating Concept Bottleneck Model from pre-trained multi-modal encoder and new CLIP-like architectures. By introducing a new type of layers known as Concept Bottleneck Layers, we outline three methods for training them: with $\ell_1$-loss, contrastive loss and loss function based on Gumbel-Softmax distribution (Sparse-CBM), while final FC layer is still trained with Cross-Entropy. We show a significant increase in accuracy using sparse hidden layers in CLIP-based bottleneck models. Which means that sparse representation of concepts activation vector is meaningful in Concept Bottleneck Models. Moreover, with our Concept Matrix Search algorithm we can improve CLIP predictions on complex datasets without any additional training or fine-tuning. The code is available at: https://github.com/Andron00e/SparseCBM.

Via

Daniil Medyakov, Gleb Molodtsov, Aleksandr Beznosikov, Alexander Gasnikov

The distributed optimization problem has become increasingly relevant recently. It has a lot of advantages such as processing a large amount of data in less time compared to non-distributed methods. However, most distributed approaches suffer from a significant bottleneck - the cost of communications. Therefore, a large amount of research has recently been directed at solving this problem. One such approach uses local data similarity. In particular, there exists an algorithm provably optimally exploiting the similarity property. But this result, as well as results from other works solve the communication bottleneck by focusing only on the fact that communication is significantly more expensive than local computing and does not take into account the various capacities of network devices and the different relationship between communication time and local computing expenses. We consider this setup and the objective of this study is to achieve an optimal ratio of distributed data between the server and local machines for any costs of communications and local computations. The running times of the network are compared between uniform and optimal distributions. The superior theoretical performance of our solutions is experimentally validated.

Via

Mikhail Rudakov, Aleksandr Beznosikov, Yaroslav Kholodov, Alexander Gasnikov

Large neural networks require enormous computational clusters of machines. Model-parallel training, when the model architecture is partitioned sequentially between workers, is a popular approach for training modern models. Information compression can be applied to decrease workers communication time, as it is often a bottleneck in such systems. This work explores how simultaneous compression of activations and gradients in model-parallel distributed training setup affects convergence. We analyze compression methods such as quantization and TopK compression, and also experiment with error compensation techniques. Moreover, we employ TopK with AQ-SGD per-batch error feedback approach. We conduct experiments on image classification and language model fine-tuning tasks. Our findings demonstrate that gradients require milder compression rates than activations. We observe that $K=10\%$ is the lowest TopK compression level, which does not harm model convergence severely. Experiments also show that models trained with TopK perform well only when compression is also applied during inference. We find that error feedback techniques do not improve model-parallel training compared to plain compression, but allow model inference without compression with almost no quality drop. Finally, when applied with the AQ-SGD approach, TopK stronger than with $ K=30\%$ worsens model performance significantly.

Via

Aleksei Ustimenko, Aleksandr Beznosikov

This work considers a rather general and broad class of Markov chains, Ito chains that look like Euler-Maryama discretization of some Stochastic Differential Equation. The chain we study is a unified framework for theoretical analysis. It comes with almost arbitrary isotropic and state-dependent noise instead of normal and state-independent one, as in most related papers. Moreover, our chain's drift and diffusion coefficient can be inexact to cover a wide range of applications such as Stochastic Gradient Langevin Dynamics, sampling, Stochastic Gradient Descent, or Stochastic Gradient Boosting. We prove an upper bound for $W_{2}$-distance between laws of the Ito chain and the corresponding Stochastic Differential Equation. These results improve or cover most of the known estimates. Moreover, for some particular cases, our analysis is the first.

Via

Aleksandr Beznosikov, Sergey Samsonov, Marina Sheshukova, Alexander Gasnikov, Alexey Naumov, Eric Moulines

This paper delves into stochastic optimization problems that involve Markovian noise. We present a unified approach for the theoretical analysis of first-order gradient methods for stochastic optimization and variational inequalities. Our approach covers scenarios for both non-convex and strongly convex minimization problems. To achieve an optimal (linear) dependence on the mixing time of the underlying noise sequence, we use the randomized batching scheme, which is based on the multilevel Monte Carlo method. Moreover, our technique allows us to eliminate the limiting assumptions of previous research on Markov noise, such as the need for a bounded domain and uniformly bounded stochastic gradients. Our extension to variational inequalities under Markovian noise is original. Additionally, we provide lower bounds that match the oracle complexity of our method in the case of strongly convex optimization problems.

Via

Aleksandr Beznosikov, David Dobre, Gauthier Gidel

The Frank-Wolfe (FW) method is a popular approach for solving optimization problems with structured constraints that arise in machine learning applications. In recent years, stochastic versions of FW have gained popularity, motivated by large datasets for which the computation of the full gradient is prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we present two new variants of the FW algorithms for stochastic finite-sum minimization. Our algorithms have the best convergence guarantees of existing stochastic FW approaches for both convex and non-convex objective functions. Our methods do not have the issue of permanently collecting large batches, which is common to many stochastic projection-free approaches. Moreover, our second approach does not require either large batches or full deterministic gradients, which is a typical weakness of many techniques for finite-sum problems. The faster theoretical rates of our approaches are confirmed experimentally.

Via

Aleksandr Beznosikov, Alexander Gasnikov

Variational inequalities are a broad and flexible class of problems that includes minimization, saddle point, fixed point problems as special cases. Therefore, variational inequalities are used in a variety of applications ranging from equilibrium search to adversarial learning. Today's realities with the increasing size of data and models demand parallel and distributed computing for real-world machine learning problems, most of which can be represented as variational inequalities. Meanwhile, most distributed approaches has a significant bottleneck - the cost of communications. The three main techniques to reduce both the total number of communication rounds and the cost of one such round are the use of similarity of local functions, compression of transmitted information and local updates. In this paper, we combine all these approaches. Such a triple synergy did not exist before for variational inequalities and saddle problems, nor even for minimization problems. The methods presented in this paper have the best theoretical guarantees of communication complexity and are significantly ahead of other methods for distributed variational inequalities. The theoretical results are confirmed by adversarial learning experiments on synthetic and real datasets.

Via

Aleksandr Beznosikov, Alexander Gasnikov

Variational inequalities are a broad formalism that encompasses a vast number of applications. Motivated by applications in machine learning and beyond, stochastic methods are of great importance. In this paper we consider the problem of stochastic finite-sum cocoercive variational inequalities. For this class of problems, we investigate the convergence of the method based on the SARAH variance reduction technique. We show that for strongly monotone problems it is possible to achieve linear convergence to a solution using this method. Experiments confirm the importance and practical applicability of our approach.

Via

Aleksandr Beznosikov, Boris Polyak, Eduard Gorbunov, Dmitry Kovalev, Alexander Gasnikov

This paper is a survey of methods for solving smooth (strongly) monotone stochastic variational inequalities. To begin with, we give the deterministic foundation from which the stochastic methods eventually evolved. Then we review methods for the general stochastic formulation, and look at the finite sum setup. The last parts of the paper are devoted to various recent (not necessarily stochastic) advances in algorithms for variational inequalities.

Via

Aleksandr Beznosikov, Alexander Gasnikov

Variational inequalities are an important tool, which includes minimization, saddles, games, fixed-point problems. Modern large-scale and computationally expensive practical applications make distributed methods for solving these problems popular. Meanwhile, most distributed systems have a basic problem - a communication bottleneck. There are various techniques to deal with it. In particular, in this paper we consider a combination of two popular approaches: compression and data similarity. We show that this synergy can be more effective than each of the approaches separately in solving distributed smooth strongly monotonic variational inequalities. Experiments confirm the theoretical conclusions.

Via