Causal discovery in time-series is a fundamental problem in the machine learning community, enabling causal reasoning and decision-making in complex scenarios. Recently, researchers successfully discover causality by combining neural networks with Granger causality, but their performances degrade largely when encountering high-dimensional data because of the highly redundant network design and huge causal graphs. Moreover, the missing entries in the observations further hamper the causal structural learning. To overcome these limitations, We propose CUTS+, which is built on the Granger-causality-based causal discovery method CUTS and raises the scalability by introducing a technique called Coarse-to-fine-discovery (C2FD) and leveraging a message-passing-based graph neural network (MPGNN). Compared to previous methods on simulated, quasi-real, and real datasets, we show that CUTS+ largely improves the causal discovery performance on high-dimensional data with different types of irregular sampling.
Causal discovery from time-series data has been a central task in machine learning. Recently, Granger causality inference is gaining momentum due to its good explainability and high compatibility with emerging deep neural networks. However, most existing methods assume structured input data and degenerate greatly when encountering data with randomly missing entries or non-uniform sampling frequencies, which hampers their applications in real scenarios. To address this issue, here we present CUTS, a neural Granger causal discovery algorithm to jointly impute unobserved data points and build causal graphs, via plugging in two mutually boosting modules in an iterative framework: (i) Latent data prediction stage: designs a Delayed Supervision Graph Neural Network (DSGNN) to hallucinate and register unstructured data which might be of high dimension and with complex distribution; (ii) Causal graph fitting stage: builds a causal adjacency matrix with imputed data under sparse penalty. Experiments show that CUTS effectively infers causal graphs from unstructured time-series data, with significantly superior performance to existing methods. Our approach constitutes a promising step towards applying causal discovery to real applications with non-ideal observations.