Although soft prompt tuning is effective in efficiently adapting Vision-Language (V&L) models for downstream tasks, it shows limitations in dealing with distribution shifts. We address this issue with Attribute-Guided Prompt Tuning (ArGue), making three key contributions. 1) In contrast to the conventional approach of directly appending soft prompts preceding class names, we align the model with primitive visual attributes generated by Large Language Models (LLMs). We posit that a model's ability to express high confidence in these attributes signifies its capacity to discern the correct class rationales. 2) We introduce attribute sampling to eliminate disadvantageous attributes, thus only semantically meaningful attributes are preserved. 3) We propose negative prompting, explicitly enumerating class-agnostic attributes to activate spurious correlations and encourage the model to generate highly orthogonal probability distributions in relation to these negative features. In experiments, our method significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art prompt tuning methods on both novel class prediction and out-of-distribution generalization tasks.
We present a diffusion-based image morphing approach with perceptually-uniform sampling (IMPUS) that produces smooth, direct, and realistic interpolations given an image pair. A latent diffusion model has distinct conditional distributions and data embeddings for each of the two images, especially when they are from different classes. To bridge this gap, we interpolate in the locally linear and continuous text embedding space and Gaussian latent space. We first optimize the endpoint text embeddings and then map the images to the latent space using a probability flow ODE. Unlike existing work that takes an indirect morphing path, we show that the model adaptation yields a direct path and suppresses ghosting artifacts in the interpolated images. To achieve this, we propose an adaptive bottleneck constraint based on a novel relative perceptual path diversity score that automatically controls the bottleneck size and balances the diversity along the path with its directness. We also propose a perceptually-uniform sampling technique that enables visually smooth changes between the interpolated images. Extensive experiments validate that our IMPUS can achieve smooth, direct, and realistic image morphing and be applied to other image generation tasks.
Deep learning approaches to natural language processing have made great strides in recent years. While these models produce symbols that convey vast amounts of diverse knowledge, it is unclear how such symbols are grounded in data from the world. In this paper, we explore the development of a private language for visual data representation by training emergent language (EL) encoders/decoders in both i) a traditional referential game environment and ii) a contrastive learning environment utilizing a within-class matching training paradigm. An additional classification layer utilizing neural machine translation and random forest classification was used to transform symbolic representations (sequences of integer symbols) to class labels. These methods were applied in two experiments focusing on object recognition and action recognition. For object recognition, a set of sketches produced by human participants from real imagery was used (Sketchy dataset) and for action recognition, 2D trajectories were generated from 3D motion capture systems (MOVI dataset). In order to interpret the symbols produced for data in each experiment, gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) methods were used to identify pixel regions indicating semantic features which contribute evidence towards symbols in learned languages. Additionally, a t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) method was used to investigate embeddings learned by CNN feature extractors.
We analysis performance of semantic segmentation models wrt. adversarial attacks, and observe that the adversarial examples generated from a source model fail to attack the target models. i.e The conventional attack methods, such as PGD and FGSM, do not transfer well to target models, making it necessary to study the transferable attacks, especially transferable attacks for semantic segmentation. We find two main factors to achieve transferable attack. Firstly, the attack should come with effective data augmentation and translation-invariant features to deal with unseen models. Secondly, stabilized optimization strategies are needed to find the optimal attack direction. Based on the above observations, we propose an ensemble attack for semantic segmentation to achieve more effective attacks with higher transferability. The source code and experimental results are publicly available via our project page: https://github.com/anucvers/TASS.
This paper begins with a description of methods for estimating probability density functions for images that reflects the observation that such data is usually constrained to lie in restricted regions of the high-dimensional image space - not every pattern of pixels is an image. It is common to say that images lie on a lower-dimensional manifold in the high-dimensional space. However, although images may lie on such lower-dimensional manifolds, it is not the case that all points on the manifold have an equal probability of being images. Images are unevenly distributed on the manifold, and our task is to devise ways to model this distribution as a probability distribution. In pursuing this goal, we consider generative models that are popular in AI and computer vision community. For our purposes, generative/probabilistic models should have the properties of 1) sample generation: it should be possible to sample from this distribution according to the modelled density function, and 2) probability computation: given a previously unseen sample from the dataset of interest, one should be able to compute the probability of the sample, at least up to a normalising constant. To this end, we investigate the use of methods such as normalising flow and diffusion models. We then show that such probabilistic descriptions can be used to construct defences against adversarial attacks. In addition to describing the manifold in terms of density, we also consider how semantic interpretations can be used to describe points on the manifold. To this end, we consider an emergent language framework which makes use of variational encoders to produce a disentangled representation of points that reside on a given manifold. Trajectories between points on a manifold can then be described in terms of evolving semantic descriptions.
Training-time defenses, known as adversarial training, incur high training costs and do not generalize to unseen attacks. Test-time defenses solve these issues but most existing test-time defenses require adapting the model weights, therefore they do not work on frozen models and complicate model memory management. The only test-time defense that does not adapt model weights aims to adapt the input with self-supervision tasks. However, we empirically found these self-supervision tasks are not sensitive enough to detect adversarial attacks accurately. In this paper, we propose DRAM, a novel defense method to detect and repair adversarial samples at test time via Masked autoencoder (MAE). We demonstrate how to use MAE losses to build a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to detect adversarial samples. Moreover, we use the MAE losses to calculate input reversal vectors that repair adversarial samples resulting from previously unseen attacks. Results on large-scale ImageNet dataset show that, compared to all detection baselines evaluated, DRAM achieves the best detection rate (82% on average) on all eight adversarial attacks evaluated. For attack repair, DRAM improves the robust accuracy by 6% ~ 41% for standard ResNet50 and 3% ~ 8% for robust ResNet50 compared with the baselines that use contrastive learning and rotation prediction.
Existing defense methods against adversarial attacks can be categorized into training time and test time defenses. Training time defense, i.e., adversarial training, requires a significant amount of extra time for training and is often not able to be generalized to unseen attacks. On the other hand, test time defense by test time weight adaptation requires access to perform gradient descent on (part of) the model weights, which could be infeasible for models with frozen weights. To address these challenges, we propose DRAM, a novel defense method to Detect and Reconstruct multiple types of Adversarial attacks via Masked autoencoder (MAE). We demonstrate how to use MAE losses to build a KS-test to detect adversarial attacks. Moreover, the MAE losses can be used to repair adversarial samples from unseen attack types. In this sense, DRAM neither requires model weight updates in test time nor augments the training set with more adversarial samples. Evaluating DRAM on the large-scale ImageNet data, we achieve the best detection rate of 82% on average on eight types of adversarial attacks compared with other detection baselines. For reconstruction, DRAM improves the robust accuracy by 6% ~ 41% for Standard ResNet50 and 3% ~ 8% for Robust ResNet50 compared with other self-supervision tasks, such as rotation prediction and contrastive learning.
In this work, we formulate a novel framework of adversarial robustness using the manifold hypothesis. Our framework provides sufficient conditions for defending against adversarial examples. We develop a test-time defense method with our formulation and variational inference. The developed approach combines manifold learning with the Bayesian framework to provide adversarial robustness without the need for adversarial training. We show that our proposed approach can provide adversarial robustness even if attackers are aware of existence of test-time defense. In additions, our approach can also serve as a test-time defense mechanism for variational autoencoders.
Off-road autonomous unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are being developed for military and commercial use to deliver crucial supplies in remote locations, help with mapping and surveillance, and to assist war-fighters in contested environments. Due to complexity of the off-road environments and variability in terrain, lighting conditions, diurnal and seasonal changes, the models used to perceive the environment must handle a lot of input variability. Current datasets used to train perception models for off-road autonomous navigation lack of diversity in seasons, locations, semantic classes, as well as time of day. We test the hypothesis that model trained on a single dataset may not generalize to other off-road navigation datasets and new locations due to the input distribution drift. Additionally, we investigate how to combine multiple datasets to train a semantic segmentation-based environment perception model and we show that training the model to capture uncertainty could improve the model performance by a significant margin. We extend the Masksembles approach for uncertainty quantification to the semantic segmentation task and compare it with Monte Carlo Dropout and standard baselines. Finally, we test the approach against data collected from a UGV platform in a new testing environment. We show that the developed perception model with uncertainty quantification can be feasibly deployed on an UGV to support online perception and navigation tasks.